NOTES FOR C++ LANGUAGE PART 1 What do you mean by Object oriented programming/what is object oriented programming? Object oriented programming popularly called oops is a programming paradigm. It uses software engineering tools which can be used to build more reliable and reusable software system. One more programming paradigm which is known as structured programming has proved its utility in software field. Now the trend is changing, more and more programmers are using oops as new paradigm. In brief we can state that in oops we give due importance to data and as well as function. Oops views data and functions as single entity. The object oriented programming means that our program will consist of one or more objects these objects in turn communicate among them using predefined functions and complete the task. Why do we need object oriented paradigm? We need object oriented programming paradigm because: 1. Cost of high speed computing system is decreasing but the cost of development of highly efficient operating system and application software are not going down. In order to reduce the cost of development of efficient operating system and application software new programming paradigm is necessary and oops can play its
important role in this scenarios. 2. As the no. of users of computers is increasing the requirements of software are also increasing but the actual rate of software development growth is slow. To boost the rate of growth of new software development growth new programming paradigm oops is necessary. 3. Cost of software maintenance of older programs which were prepared using older programming paradigm is high. By software maintenance we mean that process of modifying or extending capabilities of existing software which requires deep knowledge and understanding of existing software. To reduce cost of software maintenance new programming paradigm oops becomes necessary. What are the advantages/benefits of oop and demerits/disadvantages of oops? Merits of oops 1. oop provides a programming approach which nearer to the real world problems. 2. oop protects the data from the illegal access. Data is a crucial element of programming 3. oop divides the whole problem in the form of calls and object. 4. Inheritance gives the reusability of code that keeps limitation the length of the code and that eliminates the redundancy of code.
5. Multiple instances of the object can be used in program without any interference. 6. Actual problem can designed on the basis of objects. 7. Object oriented system can be easily upgraded from small to large system without any change in the internal architecture of the software. 8. Object oriented enables the use of same property in the different way by defining external definition of same internal definition. 9. Message passing gives a better communication technique among the objects. 10. Software complexity can be easily managed. Demerits of oops: 1. Oops puts compiler overhead (that is extra processing time of CPU is required). 2. Object persistency is possible to manage using file handling and data base. 3. Re- orientation of software developer to object oriented thinking requires effort, time mastery over software engineering and programming methodologies. 4. Code reusability is not much easy to achieve. 5. The message passing between many objects in a complex application can be
difficult to trace and debug. 6. Benefits only in long run while managing large software projects, at least moderately large one. What are the characteristics/important features of oops/what is the object oriented approach/ what are the oops view points? In brief we can state that in oops we give due importance to data and as well as function. Oops views data and functions as single entity. The object oriented programming means that our program will consist of one or more objects these objects in turn communicate among them using predefined functions and complete the task. 1. Emphasis on data rather then the logic or procedure. Oops pays due importance to data which was given secondary importance in other programming paradigm. In oops program is designed around data and not designed around function which operates on data. 2. whole program is divided into useable entities called objects. 3. it creates the abstract data type. 4. a data structure is used to provide the complete characteristics of the objects.