Concepts, Fourth Edition
© The McGraw−Hill
Database management has evolved from a specialized computer application to a
central component of a modern computing environment, and, as a result, knowledge about database systems has become an essential part of an education in computer science. In this text, we present the fundamental concepts of database management. These concepts include aspects of database design, database languages, and
This text is intended for a ﬁrst course in databases at the junior or senior undergraduate, or ﬁrst-year graduate, level. In addition to basic material for a ﬁrst course,
the text contains advanced material that can be used for course supplements, or as
introductory material for an advanced course.
We assume only a familiarity with basic data structures, computer organization,
and a high-level programming language such as Java, C, or Pascal. We present concepts as intuitive descriptions, many of which are based on our running example of
a bank enterprise. Important theoretical results are covered, but formal proofs are
omitted. The bibliographical notes contain pointers to research papers in which results were ﬁrst presented and proved, as well as references to material for further
reading. In place of proofs, ﬁgures and examples are used to suggest why a result is
The fundamental concepts and algorithms covered in the book are often based
on those used in existing commercial or experimental database systems. Our aim is
to present these concepts and algorithms in a general setting that is not tied to one
particular database system. Details of particular commercial database systems are
discussed in Part 8, “Case Studies.”
In this fourth edition of Database System Concepts, we have retained the overall style
of the ﬁrst three editions, while addressing the evolution of database management.
Several new chapters have been added to cover new technologies. Every chapter has
been edited, and most have been modiﬁed extensively. We shall describe the changes
in detail shortly.