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Note for Theory Of Machine - TM By Sunil Prajapati

  • Theory Of Machine - TM
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CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1. Definition. 2. Sub-divisions of Theory of Machines. 3. Fundamental Units. 4. Derived Units. 5. Systems of Units. 6. C.G.S. Units. 7. F.P.S. Units. 8. M.K.S. Units 9. International System of Units (S.I. Units). 10. Metre. 11. Kilogram. 12. Second. 13. Presentation of Units and their Values. 14. Rules for S.I. Units. 15. Force. 16. Resultant Force. 17. Scalars and Vectors. 18. Representation of Vector Quantities. 19. Addition of Vectors. 20. Subtraction of Vectors. 2. Kinematics of Motion 3. Kinetics of Motion 1. Introduction. 2. Plane Motion. 3. Rectilinear Motion. 4. Curvilinear Motion. 5. Linear Displacement. 6. Linear Velocity. 7. Linear Acceleration. 8. Equations of Linear Motion. 9. Graphical Representation of Displacement with respect to Time. 10. Graphical Representation of Velocity with respect to Time. 11. Graphical Representation of Acceleration with respect to Time. 12. Angular Displacement. 13. Representation of Angular Displacement by a Vector. 14. Angular Velocity. 15. Angular Acceleration 16. Equations of Angular Motion. 17. Relation between Linear Motion and Angular Motion. 18. Relation between Linear and Angular’ Quantities of Motion. 19. Acceleration of a Particle along a Circular Path. 1. Introduction. 2. Newton's Laws of Motion. 3. Mass and Weight. 4. Momentum. 5. Force. 6. Absolute and Gravitational Units of Force. 7. Moment of a Force. 8. Couple. 9. Centripetal and Centrifugal Force. 10. Mass Moment of Inertia. 11. Angular Momentum or Moment of Momentum. 12. Torque. 13. Work. 14. Power. 15. Energy. 16. Principle of Conservation of Energy. 17. Impulse and Impulsive Force. 18. Principle of Conservation of Momentum. 19. Energy Lost by Friction Clutch During Engagement. 20. Torque Required to Accelerate a Geared System. 21. Collision of Two Bodies. 22. Collision of Inelastic Bodies. 23. Collision of Elastic Bodies. 24. Loss of Kinetic Energy During Elastic Impact. (v) ...1–7 ...8–23 ...24–71

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4. Simple Harmonic Motion ... 72–93 5. Simple Mechanisms ...94–118 6. Velocity in Mechanisms (Instantaneous Centre Method) ...119–142 Velocity in Mechanisms (Relative Velocity Method) ...143–173 7. 1. Introduction. 2. Velocity and Acceleration of a Particle Moving with Simple Harmonic Motion. 3. Differential Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion. 4. Terms Used in Simple Harmonic Motion. 5. Simple Pendulum. 6. Laws of Simple Pendulum. 7. Closely-coiled Helical Spring. 8. Compound Pendulum. 9. Centre of Percussion. 10. Bifilar Suspension. 11. Trifilar Suspension (Torsional Pendulum). 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematic Link or Element. 3. Types of Links. 4. Structure. 5. Difference Between a Machine and a Structure. 6. Kinematic Pair. 7. Types of Constrained Motions. 8. Classification of Kinematic Pairs. 9. Kinematic Chain. 10. Types of Joints in a Chain. 11. Mechanism. 12. Number of Degrees of Freedom for Plane Mechanisms. 13. Application of Kutzbach Criterion to Plane Mechanisms. 14. Grubler's Criterion for Plane Mechanisms. 15. Inversion of Mechanism. 16. Types of Kinematic Chains. 17. Four Bar Chain or Quadric Cycle Chain. 18. Inversions of Four Bar Chain. 19. Single Slider Crank Chain. 20. Inversions of Single Slider Crank Chain. 21. Double Slider Crank Chain. 22. Inversions of Double Slider Crank Chain. 1. Introduction. 2. Space and Body Centrodes. 3. Methods for Determining the Velocity of a Point on a Link. 4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by Instantaneous Centre Method. 5. Properties of the Instantaneous Centre. 6. Number of Instantaneous Centres in a Mechanism. 7. Types of Instantaneous Centres. 8. Location of Instantaneous Centres. 9. Aronhold Kennedy (or Three Centres-in-Line) Theorem. 10. Method of Locating Instantaneous Centres in a Mechanism. 1. Introduction. 2. Relative Velocity of Two Bodies Moving in Straight Lines. 3. Motion of a Link. 4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by Relative Velocity Method. 5. Velocities in a Slider Crank Mechanism. 6. Rubbing Velocity at a Pin Joint. 7. Forces Acting in a Mechanism. 8. Mechanical Advantage. (vi)

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8. Acceleration in Mechanisms ...174–231 9. Mechanisms with Lower Pairs ...232–257 1. Introduction. 2. Acceleration Diagram for a Link. 3. Acceleration of a Point on a Link. 4. Acceleration in the Slider Crank Mechanism. 5. Coriolis Component of Acceleration. 1. Introduction 2. Pantograph 3. Straight Line Mechanism. 4. Exact Straight Line Motion Mechanisms Made up of Turning Pairs. 5. Exact Straight Line Motion Consisting of One Sliding Pair (Scott Russel’s Mechanism). 6. Approximate Straight Line Motion Mechanisms. 7. Straight Line Motions for Engine Indicators. 8. Steering Gear Mechanism. 9. Davis Steering Gear. 10. Ackerman Steering Gear. 11. Universal or Hooke’s Joint. 12. Ratio of the Shafts Velocities. 13. Maximum and Minimum Speeds of the Driven Shaft. 14. Condition for Equal Speeds of the Driving and Driven Shafts. 15. Angular Acceleration of the Driven Shaft. 16. Maximum Fluctuation of Speed. 17. Double Hooke’s Joint. 10. Friction ...258–324 11. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives ...325–381 1. Introduction. 2. Types of Friction. 3. Friction Between Unlubricated Surfaces. 4. Friction Between Lubricated Surfaces. 5. Limiting Friction. 6. Laws of Static Friction. 7. Laws of Kinetic or Dynamic Friction. 8. Laws of Solid Friction. 9. Laws of Fluid Friction. 10. Coefficient of Friction. 11. Limiting Angle of Friction. 12. Angle of Repose. 13. Minimum Force Required to Slide a Body on a Rough Horizontal Plane. 14. Friction of a Body Lying on a Rough Inclined Plane. 15. Efficiency of Inclined Plane. 16. Screw Friction. 17. Screw Jack. 18. Torque Required to Lift the Load by a Screw Jack. 19. Torque Required to Lower the Load by a Screw Jack. 20. Efficiency of a Screw Jack. 21. Maximum Efficiency of a Screw Jack. 22. Over Hauling and Self Locking Screws. 23. Efficiency of Self Locking Screws. 24. Friction of a V-thread. 25. Friction in Journal Bearing-Friction Circle. 26. Friction of Pivot and Collar Bearing. 27. Flat Pivot Bearing. 28. Conical Pivot Bearing. 29. Trapezoidal or Truncated Conical Pivot Bearing. 30. Flat Collar Bearing 31. Friction Clutches. 32. Single Disc or Plate Clutch. 33. Multiple Disc Clutch. 34. Cone Clutch. 35. Centrifugal Clutches. 1. Introduction. 2. Selection of a Belt Drive. 3. Types of Belt Drives. 4. Types of Belts. 5. Material used for Belts. 6. Types of Flat Belt (vii)

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Drives. 7. Velocity Ratio of Belt Drive. 8. Velocity Ratio of a Compound Belt Drive. 9. Slip of Belt. 10. Creep of Belt. 11. Length of an Open Belt Drive. 12. Length of a Cross Belt Drive. 13. Power Transmitted by a Belt. 14. Ratio of Driving Tensions for Flat Belt Drive. 15. Determination of Angle of Contact. 16. Centrifugal Tension. 17. Maximum Tension in the Belt. 18. Condition for the Transmission of Maximum Power. 19. Initial Tension in the Belt. 20. V-belt Drive. 21. Advantages and Disadvantages of V-belt Drive Over Flat Belt Drive. 22. Ratio of Driving Tensions for V-belt. 23. Rope Drive. 24. Fibre Ropes. 25. Advantages of Fibre Rope Drives. 26. Sheave for Fibre Ropes. 27. Wire Ropes. 28. Ratio of Driving Tensions for Rope Drive. 29. Chain Drives. 30. Advantages and Disadvantages of Chain Drive Over Belt or Rope Drive. 31. Terms Used in Chain Drive. 32. Relation Between Pitch and Pitch Circle Diameter. 33. Relation Between Chain Speed and Angular Velocity of Sprocket. 34. Kinematic of Chain Drive. 35. Classification of Chains. 36. Hoisting and Hauling Chains. 37. Conveyor Chains. 38. Power Transmitting Chains. 39. Length of Chains. 12. Toothed Gearing ...382–427 13. Gear Trains ...428–479 1. Introduction. 2. Friction Wheels. 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Gear Drive. 4. Classification of Toothed Wheels. 5. Terms Used in Gears. 6. Gear Materials. 7. Condition for Constant Velocity Ratio of Toothed Wheels-Law of Gearing. 8. Velocity of Sliding of Teeth. 9. Forms of Teeth. 10. Cycloidal Teeth. 11. Involute Teeth. 12. Effect of Altering the Centre Distance on the Velocity Ratio For Involute Teeth Gears. 13. Comparison Between Involute and Cycloidal Gears. 14. Systems of Gear Teeth. 15. Standard Proportions of Gear Systems. 16. Length of Path of Contact. 17. Length of Arc of Contact. 18. Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact). 19. Interference in Involute Gears. 20. Minimum Number of Teeth on the Pinion in Order to Avoid Interference. 21. Minimum Number of Teeth on the Wheel in Order to Avoid Interference. 22. Minimum Number of Teeth on a Pinion for Involute Rack in Order to Avoid Interference. 23. Helical Gears. 24. Spiral Gears. 25. Centre Distance for a Pair of Spiral Gears. 26. Efficiency of Spiral Gears. 1. Introduction. 2. Types of Gear Trains. 3. Simple Gear Train. 4. Compound Gear Train. (viii)

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