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Microprocessor and Microcontroller

by Md Wesh KarniMd Wesh Karni
Type: NoteInstitute: Veer Surendra Sai University Of Technology VSSUT Offline Downloads: 180Views: 4834Uploaded: 1 year ago

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Md Wesh Karni
Md Wesh Karni
Lecture Note On Microprocessor and Microcontroller Theory and Applications Subject Code:BEE-1501 Semester: 5th Branch: EE and EEE
Disclaimer This document does not claim any originality and cannot be used as a substitute for prescribed textbooks. The information presented here is merely a collection by the committee members for their respective teaching assignments. Various sources as mentioned at the end of the document as well as freely available material from internet were consulted for preparing this document. The ownership of the information lies with the respective authors or institutions. Further, this document is not intended to be used for commercial purpose and the committee members are not accountable for any issues, legal, or otherwise, arising out of this document. The committee members make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this document and specially disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. The committee members shall not be liable for any loss or profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.
MODULE: 1 1. INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER ARCHITECTURE: A microprocessor is a programmable electronics chip that has computing and decision making capabilities similar to central processing unit of a computer. Any microprocessorbased systems having limited number of resources are called microcomputers. Nowadays, microprocessor can be seen in almost all types of electronics devices like mobile phones, printers, washing machines etc. Microprocessors are also used in advanced applications like radars, satellites and flights. Due to the rapid advancements in electronic industry and large scale integration of devices results in a significant cost reduction and increase application of microprocessors and their derivatives. Fig.1 Microprocessor-based system         Bit: A bit is a single binary digit. Word: A word refers to the basic data size or bit size that can be processed by the arithmetic and logic unit of the processor. A 16-bit binary number is called a word in a 16-bit processor. Bus: A bus is a group of wires/lines that carry similar information. System Bus: The system bus is a group of wires/lines used for communication between the microprocessor and peripherals. Memory Word: The number of bits that can be stored in a register or memory element is called a memory word. Address Bus: It carries the address, which is a unique binary pattern used to identify a memory location or an I/O port. For example, an eight bit address bus has eight lines and thus it can address 28 = 256 different locations. The locations in hexadecimal format can be written as 00H – FFH. Data Bus: The data bus is used to transfer data between memory and processor or between I/O device and processor. For example, an 8-bit processor will generally have an 8-bit data bus and a 16-bit processor will have 16-bit data bus. Control Bus: The control bus carry control signals, which consists of signals for selection of memory or I/O device from the given address, direction of data transfer and synchronization of data transfer in case of slow devices.

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