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Note for Advanced Computer Architecture - ACA by subhalaxmi sabat

  • Advanced Computer Architecture - ACA
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Author: Dr. Deepti Mehrotra Vetter: Dr. Sandeep Arya Lesson: Parallel computer models Lesson No. : 01 1.1 Objective 1.2 Introduction 1.3 The state of computing 1.3.1. Evolution of computer system 1.3.2 Elements of Modern Computers 1.3.3 Flynn's Classical Taxonomy 1.3.4 System attributes 1.4 Multiprocessor and multicomputer, 1.4.1 Shared memory multiprocessors 1.4.2 Distributed Memory Multiprocessors 1.4.3 A taxonomy of MIMD Computers 1.5 Multi vector and SIMD computers 1.5.1 Vector Supercomputer 1.5.2 SIMD supercomputers 1.6 PRAM and VLSI model 1.6.1 Parallel Random Access machines 1.6.2 VLSI Complexity Model 1.7 Keywords 1.8 Summary 1.9 Exercises 1.10 References 1.0 Objective The main aim of this chapter is to learn about the evolution of computer systems, various attributes on which performance of system is measured, classification of computers on their ability to perform multiprocessing and various trends towards parallel processing. 1.1 Introduction From an application point of view, the mainstream of usage of computer is experiencing a trend of four ascending levels of sophistication: 1

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• Data processing • Information processing • Knowledge processing • Intelligence processing With more and more data structures developed, many users are shifting to computer roles from pure data processing to information processing. A high degree of parallelism has been found at these levels. As the accumulated knowledge bases expanded rapidly in recent years, there grew a strong demand to use computers for knowledge processing. Intelligence is very difficult to create; its processing even more so. Todays computers are very fast and obedient and have many reliable memory cells to be qualified for datainformation-knowledge processing. Parallel processing is emerging as one of the key technology in area of modern computers. Parallel appears in various forms such as lookahead, vectorization concurrency, simultaneity, data parallelism, interleaving, overlapping, multiplicity, replication, multiprogramming, multithreading and distributed computing at different processing level. 1.2 The state of computing Modern computers are equipped with powerful hardware technology at the same time loaded with sophisticated software packages. To access the art of computing we firstly review the history of computers then study the attributes used for analysis of performance of computers. 1.2.1 Evolution of computer system Presently the technology involved in designing of its hardware components of computers and its overall architecture is changing very rapidly for example: processor clock rate increase about 20% a year, its logic capacity improve at about 30% in a year; memory speed at increase about 10% in a year and memory capacity at about 60% increase a year also the disk capacity increase at a 60% a year and so overall cost per bit improves about 25% a year. But before we go further with design and organization issues of parallel computer architecture it is necessary to understand how computers had evolved. Initially, man used simple mechanical devices – abacus (about 500 BC) , knotted string, and the slide rule for 2

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computation. Early computing was entirely mechanical like : mechanical adder/subtracter (Pascal, 1642) difference engine design (Babbage, 1827) binary mechanical computer (Zuse, 1941) electromechanical decimal machine (Aiken, 1944). Some of these machines used the idea of a stored program a famous example of it is the Jacquard Loom and Babbage’s Analytical Engine which is also often considered as the first real computer. Mechanical and electromechanical machines have limited speed and reliability because of the many moving parts. Modern machines use electronics for most information transmission. Computing is normally thought of as being divided into generations. Each successive generation is marked by sharp changes in hardware and software technologies. With some exceptions, most of the advances introduced in one generation are carried through to later generations. We are currently in the fifth generation. Ist generation of computers ( 1945-54) The first generation computers where based on vacuum tube technology. The first large electronic computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), which used high speed vacuum tube technology and were designed primarily to calculate the trajectories of missiles. They used separate memory block for program and data. Later in 1946 John Von Neumann introduced the concept of stored program, in which data and program where stored in same memory block. Based on this concept EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was built in 1951. On this concept IAS (Institute of advance studies, Princeton) computer was built whose main characteristic was CPU consist of two units (Program flow control and execution unit). In general key features of this generation of computers where 1) The switching device used where vacuum tube having switching time between 0.1 to 1 milliseconds. 2) One of major concern for computer manufacturer of this era was that each of the computer designs had a unique design. As each computer has unique design one cannot upgrade or replace one component with other computer. Programs that were written for one machine could not execute on another machine, even though other computer was also designed from the same company. This created a major concern for designers as there were no upward-compatible machines or computer architectures with multiple, differing 3

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implementations. And designers always tried to manufacture a new machine that should be upward compatible with the older machines. 3) Concept of specialized registers where introduced for example index registers were introduced in the Ferranti Mark I, concept of register that save the return-address instruction was introduced in UNIVAC I, also concept of immediate operands in IBM 704 and the detection of invalid operations in IBM 650 were introduced. 4) Punch card or paper tape were the devices used at that time for storing the program. By the end of the 1950s IBM 650 became one of popular computers of that time and it used the drum memory on which programs were loaded from punch card or paper tape. Some high-end machines also introduced the concept of core memory which was able to provide higher speeds. Also hard disks started becoming popular. 5) In the early 1950s as said earlier were design specific hence most of them were designed for some particular numerical processing tasks. Even many of them used decimal numbers as their base number system for designing instruction set. In such machine there were actually ten vacuum tubes per digit in each register. 6) Software used was machine level language and assembly language. 7) Mostly designed for scientific calculation and later some systems were developed for simple business systems. 8) Architecture features Vacuum tubes and relay memories CPU driven by a program counter (PC) and accumulator Machines had only fixed-point arithmetic 9) Software and Applications Machine and assembly language Single user at a time No subroutine linkage mechanisms Programmed I/O required continuous use of CPU 10) examples: ENIAC, Princeton IAS, IBM 701 IInd generation of computers (1954 – 64) The transistors were invented by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockely in 1947 at Bell Labs and by the 1950s these transistors made an electronic revolution as the transistor is 4

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