After studying this unit, you should be able to:
Describe the manufacturing process of cement,
Explain the chemical composition of cement,
Describe the physical properties of cement,
Classify the various types of cement explaining their uses,
Verify the quality of cement by the field test, and
Get acquainted with the laboratory testing of Portland cement.
1.2 DEFINITION OF CEMENT
Cement is defined as the product manufactured by burning and crushing to powder an
intimate and well-proportioned mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials.
The materials which contain calcium or lime as their major constituent are known as
calcareous materials. The various calcareous materials used in the manufacture of cement are
lime stone, marl, chalk, shells, etc. These materials provide the required proportion of lime to the
The argillaceous materials contain alumina as their major constituent. The various
argillaceous materials used in the manufacture of cement are shale, clay, laterite, etc. These
materials provide the required proportion of silica, alumina, oxide of iron, etc. to the cement.
Cement is manufactured in a variety of forms these days. The cement, which is generally
used for preparing concrete, is the Ordinary Portland Cement. But for special purposes other
qualities of cement such as Low Heat Cement, Rapid Hardening Cement, High Alumina Cement,
White Cement, Blast Furnace Slag Cement, Sulphate Resisting Cement, etc. are also used.
The selection of a particular type of cement to be used for manufacturing of concrete depends
upon the following factors:
Concrete Technology/ Cement