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Note for Environmental Engineering - EE By shweta sharma

  • Environmental Engineering - EE
  • Note
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University - AKTU
  • Civil Engineering
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Shweta Sharma
Shweta Sharma
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www.studentskey.in 7. What are rivers? What are the types of river? Rivers are the most important sources of water for public water supply schemes. Rivers are of two types, they are a. Perennial rivers. b. Non perennial rivers. 8. What is jack well? The various infiltration wells are connected by porous pipes to a sump well called jack well. 9. What are springs? The natural out flow of ground water at the earth surface is called as springs. 10. What are the types of springs? a. Gravity springs. b. Surface springs. c. Artesian springs. 11. What are artesian springs? The pervious layer which contains water combined between two impervious layers are called artesian springs. 12. What are the different types of wells? a. Open wells 1. Shallow wells. 2. Deep wells. b. Tube wells. 13. What is artesian spring? The pervious layer which contains water combined between two impervious layers is called artesian spring. 14. What are the factors governing the selection of a particular source of water? The factors governing are as follows a. the quantity of available water b. The quality of available water c. Distance of the source of supply d. General topography of the intervening area e. Elevation of the source of supply. 15. What are various type pressure pipes? a. Cast iron pipes b. Steel pipes c. Rick pipes d. Home steel pipes 3

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www.studentskey.in e.Vitrified clay pipes f. Asbestos cement pipes g. Miscellaneous type of pipes. 16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cast iron pipes? Advantages: a. Moderate in cost b. Easy to join c. Strong and durable d. Corrosion resistant Disadvantage: a. They can not be used for high pressures generally not used for pressures above 7kgkm c. When large they are heavy and uneconomical. d. They are likely to break during transportation or while making connection. 17. What are types of joint? a. Socket and spigot joint B.Flanged joint c. Mechanical joint called dresser coupling d.Elexible joints e. Expansion joints 18. How the corrosion of metal pipes is reduced? The corrosion of metal pipes can be reduced by following method a. Protective coating b. Selecting proper pipe material c. Quality of water d. Cathodic protection. 19. What are the factors governing location of intake? a. Intake structures are nearer to the treatment. b. Intake structures must never be located near the disposal of water. c. Intake structures should never be located near the navigation channel. d. There should be sufficient scope for future expansion. 20. What are the types of intake? 1. Simple submerge intake. a. Simple concrete blocks. b. Rock fill timber blocks. 2. Intake structures. a. Wet intake. b. Dry intake. 4

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www.studentskey.in 21. What are vitrified clay pipes? They are not generally used as pressure pipe for carrying because they are weak in tension. They are extensively used for carrying sewage and drainage at partial depth. 22. What are the advantages and disadvantages of RCC pipes? Advantages: a. They can resist excessive compressive load and do not collapse under normal vacuums. b. They are not corroded from inside by normal portable water. Disadvantages: a. By means of acid they are corroded. b. They cannot with stand very high pressure. 23. What are tube wells? Tube wells which a long pipe or a tube is bored or drilled deep in to the ground. 24. What are the factors affecting per capita demand? The factors affecting per capita demand are, a. Climatic condition. b. Habit of people. c. Size of city. d. Cost of water. e. Industry. f. Pressure in water tank. g. Quantity of water. h. System of sanitation. i. Supply of system. 25. What are the factors governing design period? The factors governing design period are, a. Design period should not exceed the life period of structure. b. If the funds are not in the sufficient the design period should has to be decreased. c. The rate of interest is less for the borrowing funds. d. The of population increases due to industries and commercial establishment. 26. What are the various methods of purification of water? The various methods of purification of water are, a. Screening. b. Plain sedimentation. c. Sedimentation aided with coagulation. d. Filteration. e. Disinfection. f. Aeration. g. softening. 5

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www.studentskey.in h. Miscellaneous treatments such as fluoridation, recarbornation, liming, desalination. 27. Define detention period? Detention period of settling tank may be defined as the average theoretical time required for the water to flow through tank length. 28. Define coagulation? The process of addition and mixing the chemical is called coagulation. 29. Define filtration? What are the 2 types of filter? The process of passing the water through the beds of such granular materials is known as filtration. The two types of filters are, a. Slow sand gravity filter. b. Rapid sand gravity filter. 30. What is schmutzdecke or dirty skin? The harmless compound so formed, generally form a layer on the top which is called schmutzdecke or dirty skin. The layer helps in absorbing and straining out the impurities. 31. Define uniform coefficient? It is defined as the ratio of the sieve size in mm through which 60% of the samples of sand will pass, to the effective size of the sand. 32. Differentiate between slow and rapid sand filter with respect to (a). Rate of filtration. (b). loss of head. S.NO ITEMS SLOW SAND FILTER RAPID SAND FILTER 1. Rate of filtration Small, such as 100 to 20 l/hr/sq .m of filter area. Large, such as 3000 to 6000 l/hr/sq. m of filter area 2. Loss of head Approx 10cm is the initial loss & 0.8 to 1.2m is final limit when cleaning is required Approx 0.3m is the initial loss & 2.5 to 3.5m is final limit when cleaning is required. 6

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