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Note for Railways Airports and Harbour Engineering - RAHE By rakesh prajapati

  • Railways Airports and Harbour Engineering - RAHE
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  • NMU Jalgaon - DNPCOE
  • Civil Engineering
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Subject code : CE 2303 Name of the subject : RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING Date of deliverance : VSA Educational and Charitable Trust’s Group of Institutions, Salem – 636 010 Department of Civil Engineering Chapter Reference details : A Course in Docks and Harbour Engineering by S.P.Bindhra UNIT-5 HARBOUR ENGINEERING Water transportation: The water transportation can further be subdivided into two categories:  inland transportation and  Ocean transportation. Inland Water transportation  Inland Water transportation is either in the form of river transportation or canal transportation.  Ocean Water transportation is adopted for trade and commerce.  It is estimated that about 75 per cent of international trade is carried out by shipping.  The development of navy force is intended for national defense.  Ocean water transportation has an limitation and it possesses high flexibility. Definitions Harbours:  A harbour can be defined as a sheltered area of the sea in which vessels could be launched, built or taken for repair; or could seek refuge in time of storm; or provide for loading and unloading of cargo and passengers. Harbours are broadly classified as:  Natural harbours  Semi-natural harbours  Artificial harbours. Natural harbours:  Natural formations affording safe discharge facilities for ships on sea coasts, in the form of creeks and basins, are called natural harbours.  With the rapid development of navies engaged either in commerce or war, improved accommodation and facilities for repairs, storage of cargo and connected amenities had to be provided in natural harbours.  The size and draft of present day vessels have necessitated the works improvement for natural harbours.  The factors such as local geographical features, growth of population, development of the area, etc. have made the natural harbours big and attractive. Bombay and Kandla are, examples of natural harbours Semi-natural harbours:  This type of harbour is protected on sides by headlands protection and it requires man-made protection only at the entrance.  Vishakhapatnam is a semi-natural harbour. Prepared by Mr.R.YUVARAJA, Assistant Professor / Civil Page 1

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Subject code : CE 2303 Name of the subject : RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING Date of deliverance : VSA Educational and Charitable Trust’s Group of Institutions, Salem – 636 010 Department of Civil Engineering Chapter Reference details : A Course in Docks and Harbour Engineering by S.P.Bindhra Artificial harbours:  Where such natural facilities are not available, countries having a seaboard had to create or construct such shelters making use of engineering skill and methods, and such harbours are called artificial or man-made harbours.  Madras is an artificial harbour.  Thus, a naval vessel could obtain shelter during bad weather within a tract or area of water close to the shore, providing a good hold for anchoring, protected by natural or artificial harbour walls against the fury of storms Natural roadsteads:  A deep navigable channel with a protective natural bank or shoal to seaward is a good example of a natural roadstead as shown in fig..  A confined area naturally enclosed by islands as in a creek if available is Prepared by Mr.R.YUVARAJA, Assistant Professor / Civil Page 2

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Subject code : CE 2303 Name of the subject : RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING Date of deliverance : VSA Educational and Charitable Trust’s Group of Institutions, Salem – 636 010 Department of Civil Engineering Chapter Reference details : A Course in Docks and Harbour Engineering by S.P.Bindhra known as a circumscribed natural roadstead. Artificial roadsteads:  These may be created suitably by constructing a breakwater or wall parallel to the coast or curvilinear from the coast Prepared by Mr.R.YUVARAJA, Assistant Professor / Civil Page 3

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Subject code : CE 2303 Name of the subject : RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING Date of deliverance : VSA Educational and Charitable Trust’s Group of Institutions, Salem – 636 010 Department of Civil Engineering Chapter Reference details : A Course in Docks and Harbour Engineering by S.P.Bindhra  As an alternative a circumscribed artificial roadstead could be formed by enclosing tract provided good anchorage, by projecting solid walls called jetties, from the shore.  Another method is to create a confined basin of small area having a narrow entrance and exit for ships.  Such roadsteads with smaller inner enclosures and wharf and with loading and unloading facilities are commonly provided for fishing vessels. From their utility and situation, harbours are further classified into three major types:  Harbours of refuge including naval bases  Commercial harbours, connected with ports  Fishery harbours. It is necessary to study the requirements of these types of harbours and provide for such requirements. Requirements of harbour of refuge: • Ready accessibility • Safe and commodious anchorage • Facilities for obtaining supplies and repairs Requirements of commercial harbour:  Spacious accommodation for the mercantile marine.  Ample quay space and facilities for transporting; loading and unloading cargo.  Storage sheds for cargo.  Good and quick repair facilities to avoid delay. Prepared by Mr.R.YUVARAJA, Assistant Professor / Civil Page 4

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