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Internet and Web-Technologies

by Spacex Prajapati
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Internet and Web-Technologies by Spacex Prajapati

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HTML Basics Welcome to HTML Basics. This workshop leads you through the basics of Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML). HTML is the building block for web pages. You will learn to use HTML to author an HTML page to display in a web browser. Objectives: By the end of this workshop, you will be able to: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Use a text editor to author an HTML document. Be able to use basic tags to denote paragraphs, emphasis or special type. Create hyperlinks to other documents. Create an email link. Add images to your document. Use a table for layout. Apply colors to your HTML document. Prerequisites: You will need a text editor, such as Notepad and an Internet browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape. Q: What is Notepad and where do I get it? A: Notepad is the default Windows text editor. On most Windows systems, click your Start button and choose Programs then Accessories. It should be a little blue notebook. Mac Users: SimpleText is the default text editor on the Mac. In OSX use TextEdit and change the following preferences: Select (in the preferences window) Plain text instead of Rich text and then select Ignore rich text commands in HTML files. This is very important because if you don't do this HTML codes probably won't work. One thing you should avoid using is a word processor (like Microsoft Word) for authoring your HTML documents. What is an html File? HTML is a format that tells a computer how to display a web page. The documents themselves are plain text files with special "tags" or codes that a web browser uses to interpret and display information on your computer screen. ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension Try It? Open your text editor and type the following text: <html> <head> <title>My First Webpage</title> </head> <body> This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b> </body> </html> Save the file as mypage.html. Start your Internet browser. Select Open (or Open Page) in the File menu of your browser. A dialog box will appear. Select Browse (or Choose File) and locate the html file you just created - mypage.html - select it and click Open. Now you should see an address in the
dialog box, for example C:\MyDocuments\mypage.html. Click OK, and the browser will display the page. To view how the page should look, visit this web page: http://profdevtrain.austincc.edu/html/mypage.html Example Explained What you just made is a skeleton html document. This is the minimum required information for a web document and all web documents should contain these basic components. The first tag in your html document is <html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the start of an html document. The last tag in your document is </html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the end of the html document. The text between the <head> tag and the </head> tag is header information. Header information is not displayed in the browser window. The text between the <title> tags is the title of your document. The <title> tag is used to uniquely identify each document and is also displayed in the title bar of the browser window. The text between the <body> tags is the text that will be displayed in your browser. The text between the <b> and </b> tags will be displayed in a bold font. HTM or HTML Extension? When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. The .htm extension comes from the past when some of the commonly used software only allowed three letter extensions. It is perfectly safe to use either .html or .htm, but be consistent. mypage.htm and mypage.html are treated as different files by the browser. How to View HTML Source A good way to learn HTML is to look at how other people have coded their html pages. To find out, simply click on the View option in your browsers toolbar and select Source or Page Source. This will open a window that shows you the actual HTML of the page. Go ahead and view the source html for this page. HTML Tags What are HTML tags? ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements HTML tags are surrounded by the two characters < and > The surrounding characters are called angle brackets HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag The text between the start and end tags is the element content HTML tags are not case sensitive, <b> means the same as <B> Logical vs. Physical Tags In HTML there are both logical tags and physical tags. Logical tags are designed to describe (to the browser) the enclosed text's meaning. An example of a logical tag is the <strong> </strong> tag. By placing text in between these tags you are telling the browser that the text has some greater importance. By default all browsers make the text appear bold when in between the <strong> and </strong> tags. Physical tags on the other hand provide specific instructions on how to display the text they enclose. Examples of physical tags include: ƒ ƒ ƒ <b>: Makes the text bold. <big>: Makes the text usually one size bigger than what's around it. <i>: Makes text italic.
Physical tags were invented to add style to HTML pages because style sheets were not around, though the original intention of HTML was to not have physical tags. Rather than use physical tags to style your HTML pages, you should use style sheets. HTML Elements Remember the HTML example from the previous page: <html> <head> <title>My First Webpage</title> </head> <body> This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b> </body> </html> This is an HTML element: <b>This text is bold</b> The HTML element begins with a start tag: <b> The content of the HTML element is: This text is bold The HTML element ends with an end tag: </b> The purpose of the <b> tag is to define an HTML element that should be displayed as bold. This is also an HTML element: <body> This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b> </body> This HTML element starts with the start tag <body>, and ends with the end tag </body>. The purpose of the <body> tag is to define the HTML element that contains the body of the HTML document. Nested Tags You may have noticed in the example above, the <body> tag also contains other tags, like the <b> tab. When you enclose an element in with multiple tags, the last tag opened should be the first tag closed. For example: <p><b><em>This is NOT the proper way to close nested tags.</p></em></b> <p><b><em>This is the proper way to close nested tags. </em></b></p> Note: It doesn't matter which tag is first, but they must be closed in the proper order. Why Use Lowercase Tags? You may notice we've used lowercase tags even though I said that HTML tags are not case sensitive. <B> means the same as <b>. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the group responsible for developing web standards, recommends lowercase tags in their HTML 4 recommendation, and XHTML (the next generation HTML) requires lowercase tags. Tag Attributes Tags can have attributes. Attributes can provide additional information about the HTML elements on your page. The <tag> tells the browser to do something, while the attribute tells the browser how to do it. For instance, if we add the bgcolor attribute, we can tell the browser that the background color of your page should be blue, like this: <body bgcolor="blue">.
This tag defines an HTML table: <table>. With an added border attribute, you can tell the browser that the table should have no borders: <table border="0">. Attributes always come in name/value pairs like this: name="value". Attributes are always added to the start tag of an HTML element and the value is surrounded by quotes. Quote Styles, "red" or 'red'? Attribute values should always be enclosed in quotes. Double style quotes are the most common, but single style quotes are also allowed. In some rare situations, like when the attribute value itself contains quotes, it is necessary to use single quotes: name='George "machine Gun" Kelly' Note: Some tags we will discuss are deprecated, meaning the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) the governing body that sets HTML, XML, CSS, and other technical standards decided those tags and attributes are marked for deletion in future versions of HTML and XHTML. Browsers should continue to support deprecated tags and attributes, but eventually these tags are likely to become obsolete and so future support cannot be guaranteed. For a complete list of tags, visit W3C.org. Basic HTML Tags The most important tags in HTML are tags that define headings, paragraphs and line breaks. Basic HTML Tags Tag Description <html> Defines an HTML document <body> Defines the document's body <h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6 <p> Defines a paragraph <br> Inserts a single line break <hr> Defines a horizontal rule <!--> Defines a comment Headings Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. <h1> defines the largest heading while <h6> defines the smallest. <h1>This is a heading</h1> <h2>This is a heading</h2> <h3>This is a heading</h3> <h4>This is a heading</h4> <h5>This is a heading</h5> <h6> This is a heading</h6> HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a heading. A useful heading attribute is align.

Lecture Notes