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Note for Fluid Mechanics - FM By Rishab Sahoo

  • Fluid Mechanics - FM
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
  • Chemical Engineering
  • 13 Topics
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Unit-I 1. Introduction o Differences between fluid and solid o Differences between gas and liquid 2. Types of fluids: o Newtonian & non-Newtonian fluids o Compressible & incompressible fluids 3. Physical properties: o Viscosity o Vapor pressure o Compressibility and Bulkmodulus o Surface tension o Capillarity o Problems - SurfaceTension 4. Fluid statics: o Pascal's law for pressure at a pointin a fluid o Variation of pressure in a Static fluid o Absolute and gauge pressure,vacuum 5. Pressure Measurement o Fluid Pressure o Barometers o Piezo meters o Manometers:  Introduction  Simple U-tube manometer  Inverted U-tube manometer  Manometer with one leg enlarged  Two fluid U-tube manometer  Inclined U-tube manometer  Manometer - limitations o Pressure gauges - Bourdon gauge 6. Buoyancy - principles 7. Units and Dimensions 8. Similitude and model studies: o Kinematic and dynamic similarities o DimensionalAnalysis: o Rayleigh's method o Buckingham pi method o Important DimensionlessNumbers Unit -II 1. Fluid flow: o Stream line o Stream tube

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o o o o 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Steady & Uniform flows One-dimensional & multidimensional flow Equation of continuity Energy equation - Bernoulli's equation  Tank training problem o Momentum equation o Toricellie equation o Trajectory of a liquid-jet issued upwards in the atmosphere o Trajectory of a jet issued from an orifice at the side of a tank o Water Hammer o Laminar and Turbulent flow Boundary layer concepts: o Introduction o Development of boundary layer for flow over a flat plate o Development of boundary layer for flow through circular pipe o Entry length o Fully developed flow o Boundary layer separation Flow of incompressible fluid in pipes: o Laminar flow o Hagen Poiseuille equation o Friction factor o Pressure drop in turbulent flow o Velocity Distribution for turbulent flow o Surface roughness o Flow through non-circular pipes o Flow through curved pipes o Expansion losses o Contraction losses o Losses for flow through fittings o Equivalent length of pipe fittings Types of flow problems Compressible fluid flow: o Equations of compressible flow o Velocity of sound in fluid o Mach number o Nozzles & diffusers o Maximum velocity Two dimensional flow: o Velocity potential o Potential function o Irrotational flow Unit -III 1. Closed channel flow measurement:

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o o o o o o o o Venturi meter Orifice meter Venturi - Orifice Comparison Pitot tube Rotameter Flow measurement based on Doppler effect Hot wire and hot film anemometer Magnetic flow meter 2. Open channel flow measurement: o Elementary theory of weirs and notches o Rectangular notch o V-notch o Suppressed and contracted weirs o Submerged weirs o Trapezoidal notch Unit -IV 1. Flow past immersed bodies: o Form drag o Wall drag o Drag coefficients 2. Friction in flow through bed of solids: o Blake-Kozeny Equation o Burke-Plummer Equation o Ergun equation 3. Packed Towers: o Applications o Various types of packing o Requirements for a good packing o Loading and Flooding 4. Fluidization: o Minimum fluidizing velocity o Pressure Drop in Fluidized bed o Fluidization Types 5. Motion of particle through fluid 6. Terminal settling velocity 7. Operating ranges of fluidization 8. Applications of fluidization 9. Pneumatic transport Unit -V 1. Transportation of fluids: o Pump classifications: o Suction, discharge , net pressure heads, specific speed and power calculations

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o 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. NPSH Characteristics and constructional details of centrifugal pumps o Cavitation o Priming Positive displacement pumps: o Piston pumps - single and double acting o Plunger pumps o Diaphragm pump Rotary pumps o Gear pumps o Lobe pumps o Screw pumps Airlift pump Jet pump Selection of pumps Fans, blowers, and compressors Appendix  Key Contributors to Fluid Mechanics

Lecture Notes