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Note for Fluid Mechanics - FM By Rishab Sahoo

  • Fluid Mechanics - FM
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
  • Chemical Engineering
  • 13 Topics
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o o o o 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Steady & Uniform flows One-dimensional & multidimensional flow Equation of continuity Energy equation - Bernoulli's equation  Tank training problem o Momentum equation o Toricellie equation o Trajectory of a liquid-jet issued upwards in the atmosphere o Trajectory of a jet issued from an orifice at the side of a tank o Water Hammer o Laminar and Turbulent flow Boundary layer concepts: o Introduction o Development of boundary layer for flow over a flat plate o Development of boundary layer for flow through circular pipe o Entry length o Fully developed flow o Boundary layer separation Flow of incompressible fluid in pipes: o Laminar flow o Hagen Poiseuille equation o Friction factor o Pressure drop in turbulent flow o Velocity Distribution for turbulent flow o Surface roughness o Flow through non-circular pipes o Flow through curved pipes o Expansion losses o Contraction losses o Losses for flow through fittings o Equivalent length of pipe fittings Types of flow problems Compressible fluid flow: o Equations of compressible flow o Velocity of sound in fluid o Mach number o Nozzles & diffusers o Maximum velocity Two dimensional flow: o Velocity potential o Potential function o Irrotational flow Unit -III 1. Closed channel flow measurement:

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o o o o o o o o Venturi meter Orifice meter Venturi - Orifice Comparison Pitot tube Rotameter Flow measurement based on Doppler effect Hot wire and hot film anemometer Magnetic flow meter 2. Open channel flow measurement: o Elementary theory of weirs and notches o Rectangular notch o V-notch o Suppressed and contracted weirs o Submerged weirs o Trapezoidal notch Unit -IV 1. Flow past immersed bodies: o Form drag o Wall drag o Drag coefficients 2. Friction in flow through bed of solids: o Blake-Kozeny Equation o Burke-Plummer Equation o Ergun equation 3. Packed Towers: o Applications o Various types of packing o Requirements for a good packing o Loading and Flooding 4. Fluidization: o Minimum fluidizing velocity o Pressure Drop in Fluidized bed o Fluidization Types 5. Motion of particle through fluid 6. Terminal settling velocity 7. Operating ranges of fluidization 8. Applications of fluidization 9. Pneumatic transport Unit -V 1. Transportation of fluids: o Pump classifications: o Suction, discharge , net pressure heads, specific speed and power calculations

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o 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. NPSH Characteristics and constructional details of centrifugal pumps o Cavitation o Priming Positive displacement pumps: o Piston pumps - single and double acting o Plunger pumps o Diaphragm pump Rotary pumps o Gear pumps o Lobe pumps o Screw pumps Airlift pump Jet pump Selection of pumps Fans, blowers, and compressors Appendix  Key Contributors to Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanicsis that section of applied mechanics, concerned with the statics and dynamics of liquids and gases. A knowledge of fluid mechanics is essential for the chemical engineer, because the majority of chemical processing operations are conducted either partially or totally in the fluid phase. The handling of liquids is much simpler, much cheaper, and much less troublesome than handling solids. Even in many operations a solid is handled in a finely divided state so that it stays in suspension in a fluid. Fluid Statics: Which treats fluids in the equilibrium state of no shear stress Fluid Mechanics: Which treats when portions of fluid are in motion relative to other parts. Fluids and their Properties Fluids In everyday life, we recognize three states of matter:solid,liquid and gas. Although different in many respects, liquids and gases have a common characteristic in which they differ from solids: they are fluids, lacking the ability of solids to offer a permanent resistance to a deforming force. A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously under the action of shearing forces, however small they may be.Conversely, it follows that: If a fluid is at rest, there can be no shearing forces acting and, therefore, all forces in the fluid must be perpendicular to the planes upon which they act. Shear stress in a moving fluid Although there can be no shear stress in a fluid at rest, shear stresses are developed when the fluid is in motion, if the particles of the fluid move relative to each other so that they have different velocities, causing the original shape of the fluid to become distorted. If, on the other hand, the velocity of the fluid is same at every point, no shear stresses will be produced, since the fluid particles are at rest relative to each other.

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