×
The best revenge is massive SUCCESS
--Your friends at LectureNotes
Close

Basic Electronics

by Vishal Sagar
Type: NoteInstitute: Maharshi Dayanand University Specialization: Mechanical EngineeringOffline Downloads: 329Views: 7621Uploaded: 10 months agoAdd to Favourite

Share it with your friends

Suggested Materials

Leave your Comments

Contributors

Vishal Sagar
Vishal Sagar
Basic Networking Concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Protocols Protocol Layers Network Interconnection/Internet 1
1. Introduction -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. -Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each node has a unique address. -Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work with, but not for humans to remember. Example: 204.160.241.98 -Some networks also provide names that humans can more easily remember than numbers. Example: www.javasoft.com, corresponding to the above numeric address. … NIC addr1 NIC addr2 NIC addrN 2
Addressing Internet address Consists of 4 bytes separated by periods Example: 136.102.233.49 -The R first bytes (R= 1,2,3) correspond to the network address; -The remaining H bytes (H = 3,2,1) are used for the host machine. -InterNIC Register: organization in charge of the allocation of the address ranges corresponding to networks. -Criteria considered: → Geographical area (country) → Organization, enterprise → Department → Host Domain Name System (DNS) -Mnemonic textual addresses are provided to facilitate the manipulation of internet addresses. -DNS servers are responsible for translating mnemonic textual Internet 3 addresses into hard numeric Internet addresses.
Ports -An IP address identifies a host machine on the Internet. -An IP port will identify a specific application running on an Internet host machine. -A port is identified by a number, the port number. -The number of ports is not functionally limited, in contrast to serial communications where only 4 ports are allowed. -There are some port numbers which are dedicated for specific applications. Applications Port numbers HTTP 80 FTP 20 and 21 Gopher 70 SMTP (e-mail) 25 POP3 (e-mail) 110 Telnet 23 Finger 79 4

Lecture Notes