LECTURE NOTES ON AUTOMATA AND COMPILER DESIGN III B. Tech I semester (JNTUH-R13) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIT -1 PART A: Overview of compilation 1. OVERVIEW OF LANGUAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM 1.1 Preprocessor A preprocessor produce input to compilers. They may perform the following functions. 1. Macro processing: A preprocessor may allow a user to define macros that are short hands for longer constructs. 2. File inclusion: A preprocessor may include header files into the program text. 3. Rational preprocessor: these preprocessors augment older languages with more modern flow-of-control and data structuring facilities. 4. Language Extensions: These preprocessor attempts to add capabilities to the language by certain amounts to build-in macro 1.2Compiler Compiler is a translator program that translates a program written in (HLL) the source program and translates it into an equivalent program in (MLL) the target program. As an important part of a compiler is error showing to the programmer. Source pg Compiler Error msg target pgm
Executing a program written n HLL programming language is basically of two parts. the source program must first be compiled translated into a object program. Then the results object program is loaded into a memory executed. 1.3ASSEMBLER: programmers found it difficult to write or read programs in machine language. They begin to use a mnemonic (symbols) for each machine instruction, which they would subsequently translate into machine language. Such a mnemonic machine language is now called an assembly language. Programs known as assembler were written to automate the translation of assembly language in to machine language. The input to an assembler program is called source program, the output is a machine language translation (object program). 1.4 INTERPRETER: An interpreter is a program that appears to execute a source program as if it were machine language. Languages such as BASIC, SNOBOL, LISP can be translated using interpreters. JAVA also uses interpreter. The process of interpretation can be carried out in following phases. 1. Lexical analysis 2. Syntax analysis 3. Semantic analysis 4. Direct Execution Advantages: Modification of user program can be easily made and implemented as execution proceeds. Type of object that denotes various may change dynamically. Debugging a program and finding errors is simplified task for a program used for interpretation. The interpreter for the language makes it machine independent. Disadvantages: The execution of the program is slower. Memory consumption is more.
1.5 Loader and Link-editor: Once the assembler procedures an object program, that program must be p laced into memory and executed. The assembler could place the object program directly in memory and transfer control to it, thereby causing the machine language program to be execute. This would waste core by leaving the assembler in memory while the user’s program was being executed. Also the programmer would have to retranslate his program with each execution, thus wasting translation time. To overcome this problems of wasted translation time and memory. System programmers developed another component called loader. “A loader is a program that places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.” It would be more efficient if subroutines could be translated into object form the loader could ”relocate” directly behind the user’s program. The task of adjusting programs o they may be placed in arbitrary core locations is called relocation. Relocation loaders perform four functions. 1.6 TRANSLATOR A translator is a program that takes as input a program written in one language and produces as output a program in another language. Beside program translation, the translator performs another very important role, the error-detection. Any violation of d HLL specification would be detected and reported to the programmers. Important role of translator are: 1 Translating the hll program input into an equivalent ml program. 2 Providing diagnostic messages wherever the programmer violates specification of the hll. 1.6.1TYPE OF TRANSLATORS: Interpreter Compiler preprocessor 1.6.2 LIST OF COMPILERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ada compilers ALGOL compilers BASIC compilers C# compilers C compilers C++ compilers COBOL compilers Java compilers