LECTURE NOTES ON BUILDING MATERIALS,CONSTRUCTION and PLANNING Department of Civil Engineering
t UNIT- I: STONES AND BRICKS BUILDING STONES: Man requires different types of buildings such as houses, bungalows, flats etc for His living. For his activities man also require Hospitals for his health; Schools, Colleges and Universities for his education; Banks, Shops, Offices and Factories for doing works; Railway buildings, Bus stations and Air terminals for his transportation; Clubs and Theatres for recreation and Temples, Mosques, Churches etc for worship. Each type of the above buildings has its own requirements and needs building stones to construct the same. The period from 1750 A D onwards is known as the period of Modern Architecture. The use of reinforced concrete in construction triggered the rapid development of modern architecture. Structural components such as Columns, RCC slabs became increasingly popular because of the increased speed in construction. Use of plywood, glass, decorative materials etc helped the designers to make the new structures look more elegant in addition to the usage of various building stones. So, the engineering structures are composed of materials and are known as the engineering materials ( or ) building materials. Hence, Building materials have an important role to play in this modern age of technology. Building stones are obtained from rocks, are derived into three groups viz., Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks. QUARRYING OF STONES: The process of taking out stones from exposed surface of natural rock beds is known as the quarrying. While selecting a quarry site, one should remember that the availability of quantity; desired quality, transportation facilities, cheap local labor, and free from the permanent structures in the vicinity, drainage of rainwater etc.. In case of a quarry, the operations are carried out at ground level (in an exposed condition) whereas in case of mine, the operations are carried out under the ground at greater depths. SELECTION OF A SITE FOR QUARRYING: 1 • Availability of Raw material, Tools, Power, Labor • Space for dumping of refuse material. • Distance of quarry from roads, railways. • Proximity to the transportation facilities. • Easy availability of clean water in sufficient quantity throughout the year. • Economy in quarrying • Blasting material availability • Absence of permanent structures • Geological data regarding rock formations.
STONE QUARRYING TOOLS Tamping Bar: A tamping bar has a small blade at one end for loosening compacted or rocky soil and a flattened end for tamping.. Shovels: Shovels are available in various shapes and handle lengths. shovels are most common for trail work and are used to move loosened soil, to dig trenches. They can also be used for cleaning of culvert outlets. Post Hole Digger: Used for removing soil from holes. Soil should be lifted from the holes. Sledge hammer: A sledgehammer with a 6 to 8 pound head and a 3 foot-long handle is most useful for trail work. It can be used to crush rock into gravel. Single Jack Hammer: A single jack (3 to 4 pound head with short handle) hammer can be used with a star drill to punch holes in rock. Star Drill: Star drills are usually about a foot long and weigh a pound. They are used with single jack hammers to punch holes in rock
Typical Plug Drills - (Top) drill with a round blade (bottom) drill with pointed blade 1 The plug & feather method involves drilling a series of round holes in the rock spaced every six inches or so apart. The typical round hole ranges for 1/2 inch to 1 inch in diameter and 3 to 4 inches deep. These holes are drilled using either a single bladed plug drill or a star drill. The drill is struck by a hammer. The stone dust which accumulates in the holes is removed using a simple tool called a scrapping spoon. Once the holes are drilled, two shims called feathers or half-rounds are placed in the hole and a wedge called a plug is placed between the two feathers.