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Microprocessor and Microcontroller

by Satish Kasarla
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Satish Kasarla
Satish Kasarla
UNIT-I Microprocessor and Microprocessor Development Systems LECTURE -1 INTRODUCTION:-COMPUTERS “A Computer is an electronic machine that can solve different problems, process data, and store & retrieve data and perform calculations faster and efficiently than humans”. Since the advent of the first computer different types and sizes of computers are offering different services. Computers can be as big as occupying a large building and as small as a laptop or a microcontroller in systems. The four basic types of computers are. 1. 2. 3. 4. Super computer Mainframe Computer Minicomputer Microcomputer 1.Supercomputer The most powerful computers in terms of performance and data processing are the supercomputers. These are specialized and task specific computers used by large organizations. These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose.The supercomputers are very expensive and very large in size. It can be accommodated in large airconditioned rooms; some super computers can span an entire building. In 1964, Seymour cray designed the first supercomputer CDC 6600. Uses of Supercomputer:-In Pakistan and other countries Supercomputers are used by Educational Institutes like NUST (Pakistan) for research purposes. Pakistan Atomic Energy commission & Heavy Industry Taxila use supercomputers for Research purposes. Space Exploration-Supercomputers are used to study the origin of the universe, the dark-matters.
For these studies scientist use IBM’s powerful supercomputer “Roadrunner” at National Laboratory Los Alamos. Earthquake studies-Supercomputers are used to study the Earthquakes phenomenon. Besides that supercomputers are used for natural resources exploration, like natural gas, petroleum, coal, etc. Weather Forecasting-Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, and to study the nature and extent of Hurricanes, Rainfalls, windstorms, etc. Nuclear weapons testing-Supercomputers are used to run weapon simulation that can test the Range, accuracy & impact of Nuclear weapons. Popular Supercomputers      IBM’s Sequoia, in United States Fujitsu’s K Computer in Japan IBM’s Mira in United States IBM’s SuperMUC in Germany NUDT Tianhe-1A in China 2. Mainframe computer:-Although Mainframes are not as powerful as supercomputers, but certainly they are quite expensive nonetheless, and many large firms & government organizations uses Mainframes to run their business operations. The Mainframe computers can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms because of its size. Super-computers are the fastest computers with large data storage capacity, Mainframes can also process & store large amount of data. Banks educational institutions & insurance companies use mainframe computers to store data about their customers, students & insurance policy holders. Popular Mainframe computers   Fujitsu’s ICL VME Hitachi’s Z800 3. Minicomputers:-Minicomputers are used by small businesses & firms. Minicomputers are also called as “Midrange Computers”. These are small machines and can be accommodated on a disk with not as processing and data storage capabilities as super-computers & Mainframes. These computers are not designed for a single user. Individual departments of a large company or organizations use Mini-computers for specific purposes. For example, a production department can use Mini-computers for monitoring certain production process.
Popular Minicomputers     K-202 Texas Instrument TI-990 SDS-92 IBM Midrange computers 4. Microcomputers. Desktop computers, laptops, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablets & smartphones are all types of microcomputers. The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. Well known manufacturers of Micro-computer are Dell, Apple, Samsung, Sony & Toshiba. Desktop computers, Gaming consoles, Sound & Navigation system of a car, Netbooks, Notebooks, PDA’s, Tablet PC’s, Smartphones, Calculators are all type of Microcomputers.
UNIT-I Microprocessor and Microprocessor Development Systems LECTURE -2 Microcomputer Organization: The basic components of a microcomputer are: 1) CPU 2) Program memory 3) Data memory 4) Output ports 5) Input ports 6) Clock generator. These components are shown in figure below: Microcomputer System Central Processing Unit: The CPU consists of ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit), Register unit and control unit. The CPU retrieves stored instructions and data word from memory; it also deposits processed data in memory. a) ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) This section performs computing functions on data. These functions are arithmetic operations such as additions subtraction and logical operation such as AND, OR rotate etc. Result are stored either in registers or in memory or sent to output devices. b) Register Unit: It contains various register. The registers are used primarily to store data temporarily during the execution of a program. Some of the registers are accessible to the uses through instructions. c) Control Unit: It provides necessary timing & control signals necessary to all the operations in the microcomputer. It controls the flow of data between the μp and peripherals (input, output & memory). The control unit gets a clock which determines the speed of the μp

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