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DATABASE SECURITY

by Jntu HeroesJntu Heroes
Type: NoteInstitute: Jawaharlal nehru technological university anantapur college of engineering Offline Downloads: 6Views: 597Uploaded: 1 year ago

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www.alljntuworld.in DATABASE SECURITY UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION: • INTRODUCTION TO DATA BASE SECURITY PROBLEM IN DATABASE SECURITY CONTROLS CONCLUSIONS: Database security is a growing concern evidenced by an increase in the number of reported incidents of loss of or unauthorized exposure to sensitive data. As the amount of data collected, retained and shared electronically expands, so does the need to understand database security. The Defence Information Systems Agency of the US Department of Defence (2004), in its Database Security Technical Implementation Guide, states that database security should provide controlled, protected access to the contents of a database as well as preserve the integrity, consistency, and overall quality of the data. Students in the computing disciplines must develop an understanding of the issues and challenges related to database security and must be able to identify possible solutions. At its core, database security strives to insure that only authenticated users perform authorized activities at authorized times. While database security incorporates a wide array of security topics, notwithstanding, physical security, network security, encryption and authentication, this paper focuses on the concepts and mechanisms particular to securing data. Within that context, database security encompasses three constructs: confidentiality or protection of data from unauthorized disclosure, integrity or prevention from unauthorized data access, and availability or the identification of and recovery from hardware and software errors or malicious activity resulting in the denial of data availability. In the computing discipline curricula, database security is often included as a topic in an introductory database or introductory computer security course. This paper pg. 1 All JNTU World
www.alljntuworld.in presents a set of sub-topics that might be included in a database security component of such a course. Mapping to the three constructs of data security, these topics include access control, application access, vulnerability, inference, and auditing mechanisms. Access control is the process by which rights and privileges are assigned to users and database objects. Application access addresses the need to assign appropriate access rights to external applications requiring a database connection. Vulnerability refers to weaknesses that allow malicious users to exploit resources. Inference refers to the use of legitimate data to infer unknown information without having rights to directly retrieve that information. Database auditing tracks database access and user activity providing a way to identify breaches that have occurred so that corrective action might be taken. As the knowledge base related to database security continues to grow, so do the challenges of effectively conveying the material. This paper addresses those challenges by incorporating a set of interactive software modules into each subtopic. These modules are part of an animated database courseware project designed to support the teaching of database concepts. The courseware covers. INTRODUCTION Database technologies are a core component of many computing systems. They allow data to be retained and shared electronically and the amount of data contained in these systems continues to grow at an exponential rate. So does the need to insure the integrity of the data and secure the data from unintended access. The Privacy Rights Clearing House (2010) reports that more than 345 million customer records have been lost or stolen since 2005 when they began tracking data breach incidents, and the Ponemon Institute reports the average cost of a data breach has risen to $202 per customer record (Ponemon, 2009). In August 2009, criminal indictments were handed down in the United States to three perpetrators accused of carrying out the single largest data security breach recorded to date. These hackers allegedly stole over 130 million credit and debit card numbers by exploiting a well known database vulnerability, a SQL injection ( Phifer , 2010). The Verizon Business Risk Team, who have been reporting data breach statistics since 2004, examined 90 breaches during the 2008 calendar year. They reported that more than 285 million records had been compromised, a number exceeding pg. 2 All JNTU World
www.alljntuworld.in the combined total from all prior years of study (Baker et al., 2009). Their findings provide insight into who commits these acts and how they occur. Consistently, they have found that most data breaches originate from external sources, with 75% of the incidents coming from outside the organization as compared to 20% coming from inside. They also report that 91% of the compromised records were linked to organized criminal groups. Further, they cite that the majority of breaches result from hacking and malware often facilitated by errors committed by the victim, i.e., the database owner. Unauthorized access and SQL injection were found to be the two most common forms of hacking, an interesting finding given that both of these exploits are well known and often preventable. Given the increasing number of beaches to database systems, there is a corresponding need to increase awareness of how to properly protect and monitor database systems. At its core, database security strives to insure that only authenticated users perform authorized activities at authorized times. It includes the system, processes, and procedures that protect a database from unintended activity. The Defence Information Systems Agency of the US Department of Defence (2004), in its Database Security Technical Implementation Guide, states that database security should provide “controlled, protected access to the contents of your database and,in the process, preserve the integrity, consistency, and overall quality of your data” (p. 9). The goal is simple, the path to achieving the goal, a bit more complex. Traditionally database security focused on user authentication and managing user privileges to database objects (Guimaraes, 2006). This has proven to be inadequate given the growing number of successful database hacking incidents and the increase in the number of organizations reporting loss of sensitive data. A more comprehensive view of database security is needed, and it is becoming imperative for students in the computing disciplines to develop an understanding of the issues and challenges related to database security and to identify possible solutions. Database security is often included as a topic in an introductory database course or introductory computer security course. However as the knowledge base related to database security continues to grow, so do the challenges of effectively conveying pg. 3 All JNTU World
www.alljntuworld.in the material. Further, many topics related to database security are complex and require students to engage in active learning to fully comprehend the fundamental nature of database security issues. This paper presents a set of subtopics for inclusion in a database security component of a course. These sub-topics are illustrated using a set of interactive software modules. As part of a National Science Foundation Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Grant (#0717707), a set of interactive software modules, referred to as Animated Database Courseware (ADbC) has been developed to support the teaching of database concepts. ADbC consists of over 100 animations and tutorials categorized into four main modules (Database Design, Structured Query Language [SQL], Transactions and Security) and several sub modules. Interactive instructional materials such as animations can often be incorporated into the instructional process to enhance and enrich the standard presentation of important concepts. Animations have been found to increase student motivation, and visualizations have been found to help students develop understanding of abstract concepts which are otherwise considered to be ‘invisible’ (Steinke, Huk, & Floto, 2003). Further, software animations can be effective at reinforcing topics introduced in the classroom as they provide a venue for practice and feedback. Specifically, the Security module and corresponding sub-modules will be covered in this paper. These sub-modules cover six areas: access control, row level security, application security as portrayed in a security matrix, SQL injections, database inference, and database auditing. Database Security Topics: The following presents an organizational structure for presenting database security concepts in a course in which database security is one of many topics. As such the focus is limited and material introductory. While database security incorporates a wide array of security topics, not withstanding, physical security, network security, encryption and authentication, this paper focuses on the concepts and mechanisms particular to securing data. Database security is built upon a framework encompassing three constructs: confidentiality, integrity and availability (Bertino & Sandhu, 2005). Confidentiality or secrecy refers to the protection of data against unauthorized disclosure, integrity refers to the pg. 4 All JNTU World

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