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Note for Applied Physics - Phy By JNTU Heroes

  • Applied Physics - Phy
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  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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www.jntuworld.com www.jwjobs.net www.smartzworld.com UNIT-V 8. Semiconductor Physics: Fermi Level in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Intrinsic Semiconductors and Carrier Concentration, Extrinsic Semiconductors and Carrier Concentration, Equation of Continuity,Direct & Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors, Hall Effect. 9. Physics of Semiconductor Devices: Formation of PN Junction, Open Circuit PN Junction, EnergyDiagram of PN Diode, I-V Characteristics of PN Junction, PN Diode as a Rectifier (Forward and ReverseBias), Diode Equation, LED, LCD and Photo Diodes. UNIT-VI 10. Dielectric Properties: Electric Dipole, Dipole Moment, Dielectric Constant, Polarizability, ElectricSusceptibility, Displacement Vector, Electronic, Ionic and Orientation Polarizations and Calculation ofPolarizabilities - Internal Fields in Solids, Clausius - Mossotti Equation, Piezo-electricity, Pyro-electricity and Ferro- electricity. 11. Magnetic Properties: Permeability, Field Intensity, Magnetic Field Induction, Magnetization, MagneticSusceptibility, Origin of Magnetic Moment, Bohr Magneton, Classification of Dia, Para and Ferro MagneticMaterials on the basis of Magnetic Moment, Domain Theory of Ferro Magnetism on the basis of HysteresisCurve, Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials, Properties of Anti-Ferro and Ferri Magnetic Materials, Ferrites andtheir Applications, Concept of Perfect Diamagnetism, Meissner Effect, Magnetic Levitation, Applications of Superconductors. UNIT-VII` 12. Lasers: Characteristics of Lasers, Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission of Radiation, Meta-stableState, Population Inversion, Lasing Action, Einstein’s Coefficients and Relation between them, Ruby Laser,Helium-Neon Laser, Carbon Dioxide Laser, Semiconductor Diode Laser, Applications of Lasers. 13. Fiber Optics: Principle of Optical Fiber, Acceptance Angle and Acceptance Cone, Numerical Aperture,Types of Optical Fibers and Refractive Index Profiles, Attenuation in Optical Fibers, Application of OpticalFibers. UNIT-VIII 14. Acoustics of Buildings & Acoustic Quieting: Basic Requirement of Acoustically Good Hall,Reverberation and Time of Reverberation, Sabine’s Formula for Reverberation Time(Qualitative Treatment),Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of a Material, Factors Affecting The Architectural Acoustics and theirRemedies. Acoustic Quieting: Aspects of Acoustic Quieting, Methods of Quieting, Quieting for SpecificObservers, Mufflers, Sound-proofing. 15. Nanotechnology: Origin of Nanotechnology, Nano Scale, Surface to Volume Ratio, QuantumConfinement, Bottom-up Fabrication: Sol-gel, Precipitation, Combustion Methods; Top-down Fabrication:Chemical Vapour Deposition, Physical Vapour Deposition, Pulsed Laser Vapour Deposition Methods, Characterization(XRD&TEM) and Applications. 2 www.smartzworld.com 2 www.jntuworld.com

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www.jntuworld.com www.jwjobs.net www.smartzworld.com TEXT BOOKS: 1. Applied Physics – P.K.Palanisamy (SciTech Publications (India) Pvt. Ltd., Fifth Print 2008). 2. Applied Physics – S.O. Pillai & Sivakami (New Age International (P) Ltd., Second Edition 2008). 3. Applied Physics – T. Bhima Shankaram & G. Prasad (B.S. Publications, Third Edition 2008). REFERENCES: 1. Solid State Physics – M. Armugam (Anuradha Publications). 2. Modern Physics – R. Murugeshan & K. Siva Prasath – S. Chand & Co. (for Statistical Mechanics). 3. A Text Book of Engg Physics – M. N. Avadhanulu & P. G. Khsirsagar– S. Chand & Co. (for acoustics). 4. Modern Physics by K. Vijaya Kumar, S. Chandralingam: S. Chand & Co.Ltd 5. Nanotechnology – M.Ratner & D. Ratner (Pearson Ed.). 6. Introduction to Solid State Physics – C. Kittel (Wiley Eastern). 7. Solid State Physics – A.J. Dekker (Macmillan). 8. Applied Physics – Mani Naidu Pearson Education 3 www.smartzworld.com 3 www.jntuworld.com

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www.jntuworld.com www.jwjobs.net www.smartzworld.com PHYSICS LIST OF CONTENTS Name of the Topic S. No 1 Page No. BONDING IN SOLIDS 2 CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 3 X – RAY DIFFRACTION 4 DEFECTS IN CRYSTALS 5 ELEMENTS OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS 6 PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS 7 BAND THEORY OF SOLIDS 8 SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS 9 PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES 10 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES 11 MAGNETIC PROPERTIES 12 LASERS 13 FIBER OPTICS 14 ACOUSTICS OF BUILDINGS & ACOUSTIC QUIETING 15 NANOTECHNOLOGY 4 www.smartzworld.com 4 www.jntuworld.com

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www.jntuworld.com www.jwjobs.net www.smartzworld.com APPLIED PHYSICS UNIT-I 1. BONDING IN SOLIDS INTRODUCTION In the gaseous state of matter, individual atoms or molecules can move freely in space with a velocity determined by the temperature. But in solid state, the constituent atoms or molecules that build the solid are confined to a localized region. The principle region between the two states is bonding. In gases, the atoms or molecules are free whereas in solids they are bound in a particular form because of which, they possess certain physical properties such elasticity, electrical and optical properties. BONDING Bonding is the physical state of existence of two or more atoms together in a bound form. The supply of external energy is required to get back the bonded atoms to the Free State as energy is needed to break the bonds. This energy is called dissociation (binding) or cohesive energy. Bonding occurs between similar or dissimilar atoms, when an electrostatic interaction between them produces a resultant state whose energy is lesser than the sum of the energies possessed by individual atoms when they are free. TYPES OF BONDING IN SOLIDS Bonds in solids are classified basically into two groups namely primary and secondary bonds. Primary bonds are inter atomic bonds i.e. bonding between the atoms and secondary bonds are intermolecular bonds i.e. between the molecules. Primary bonds The primary bonds are interatomic bonds. In this bonding interaction occurs only through the electrons in the outermost orbit, i.e. the valence electrons. These are further classified into three types Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding 5 www.smartzworld.com 5 www.jntuworld.com

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