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Jntu Heroes
Jntu Heroes
LECTURE NOTES ON Estimating and Costing IV B. Tech I semester (JNTUH-R13) CIVIL ENGINEERING 1
INDEX S.No. Topic Page No. 01. Introduction to the subject 1 - 3 02. Measurement of Materials & Works 4 - 12 03. Types of Estimates 13 - 21 04. Detail & Abstract Estimates of Buildings 22 - 55 05. Analysis of Rates 56 - 73 06. 74 - 80 07. Estimation of Quantities of Steel & RCC Elements Earth Work Calculations 81 - 95 08. Detailed Estimates 96 - 108 09. Appendix 09 - 115 2
1 Estimation and Costing Chapter INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT 1 DEFINITION OF ESTIMATING AND COSTING Estimating is the technique of calculating or Computing the various quantities and the expected Expenditure to be incurred on a particular work or project. In case the funds avilable are less than the estimated cost the work is done in part or by reducing it or specifications are altered, the following require-ment are necessary for preparing an estimate. a) Drawings like plan, elevation and sections of important points. b) Detailed specifications about workmenship & properties of materials etc. c) Standard schedule of rates of the current year. NEED FOR ESTIMATION AND COSTING 1. Estimate give an idea of the cost of the work and hence its feasibility can be determined i..e whether the project could be taken up with in the funds available or not. 2. Estimate gives an idea of time required for the completion of the work. 3. Estimate is required to invite the tenders and Quotations and to arange contract. Estimate is also required to control the expenditure during the execution of work. Estimate decides whether the proposed plan matches the funds available or not. 4. 5. PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING OR METHOD OF ESTIMATING. 1. 2. 3. Estimating involves the following operations Preparing detailed Estimate. Calculating the rate of each unit of work Preparing abstract of estimate DATA REQUIRED TO PREPARE AN ESTIMATE 1. 2. 3. Drawings i.e.plans, elevations, sections etc. Specifications. Rates. 3
2 Introduction to the Subject 1.4.1 DRAWINGS If the drawings are not clear and without complete dimensions the prepa-ration of estimation become very difficult. So, It is very essential before prepar-ing an estimate. SPECIFICATIONS a) General Specifications: This gives the nature, quality, class and work and materials in general terms to be used in various parts of wok. It helps no form a general idea of building. b) Detailed Specifications: These gives the detailed description of the vari-ous items of work laying down the Quantities and qualities of materials, their proportions, the method of preparation workmanship and execution of work. RATES: For preparing the estimate the unit rates of each item of work are re-quired. 1. For arriving at the unit rates of each item. 2. The rates of various materials to be used in the construction. 3. The cost of transport materials. 4. The wages of labour, skilled or unskilled of masons, carpenters, Mazdoor, etc., COMPLETE ESTIMATE: Most of people think that the estimate of a structure includes cost of land, cost of materials and labour, But many other direct and indirect costs included and is shown below. Cost of land Actual Cost of cost of Surveying land The Complete Estimate P.s.and contingencies Legal expenses between owner at 5% and contractor Cost of Structure Cost of Brochorage Cost of Permit fees for Verification if any labour constrution water, of deeds and electricity from execution of concerned autorities deeds cost of Consulting materials Engineers fees cost for preparation of plan, estimate and design 4 Cost of supervision

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