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Note for Power System-1 - PS-1 By Santanu Prasad Sahoo

  • Power System-1 - PS-1
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Network elements affect voltages and currents in one of three ways: 1. Voltage sources constrain the potential difference across their terminals to be of some fixed value (the value of the source). 2. Current sources constrain the current through the branch to be of some fixed value. 3. All other elements impose some sort of relationship, either linear or nonlinear, between voltage across and current through the branch. + v i − Current Source Voltage Source Figure 4: Notation for voltage and current sources Voltage and current sources can be either independent or dependent. Independent sources have values which are, as the name implies, independent of other variables in a circuit. Dependent sources have values which depend on some other variable in a circuit. A common example of a dependent source is the equivalent current source used for modeling the collector junction in a transistor. Typically, this is modeled as a current dependent current source, in which collector current is taken to be directly dependent on emitter current. Such dependent sources must be handled with some care, for certain tricks we will be discussing below do not work with them. For the present time, we will consider, in addition to voltage and current sources, only impedance elements, which impose a linear relationship between voltage and current. The most common of these is the resistance, which imposes the relationship which is often referred to as Ohm’s law: vr = Rir (3) ir + vr R − Figure 5: Resistance Circuit Element A bit later on in this note, we will extend this notion of impedance to other elements, but for the moment the resistance will serve our purposes. 3

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3 Examples: Voltage and Current Dividers Figure 6 may be used as an example to show how we use all of this. See that it has one loop and three nodes. Around the loop, KVL is: Vs − v1 − v2 = 0 At the upper right- hand node, we have, by KCL: i1 − i2 = 0 The constitutive relations imposed by the resistances are: v1 = R1 i1 v2 = R2 i2 Combining these, we find that: Vs = (R1 + R2 )i1 We may solve for the voltage across, say, R2 , to obtain the so-called voltage divider relationship: v2 = Vs v1 + v s (4) − + i1 R2 R1 + R2 R1 R2 − + v2 − i2 Figure 6: Voltage Divider A second example is illustrated by Figure 7. Here, KCL at the top node yields: Is − i1 − i2 = 0 And KVL, written around the loop that has the two resistances, is: R1 i1 − R2 i2 = 0 Combining these together, we have the current divider relationship: i2 = Is R1 R1 + R2 (5) Once we have derived the voltage and current divider relationships, we can use them as part of our “intellectual toolkit”, because they will always be true. 4

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i1 I s R1 + v1 i2 + v2 R2 − − Figure 7: Current Divider 4 Node Voltages and Reference One of the consequences of KVL is that every node in a network will have a potential which is uniquely specified with respect to some other node. Thus, if we take one of the nodes in the network to be a reference, or datum, each of the other nodes will have a unique potential. The voltage across any network branch is then the difference between the potentials at the nodes to which the element is connected. The potential of a node is the sum of voltages encountered when traversing some path between that node and the datum node. Note that any path will do. If KVL is satisfied, all paths between each pair of nodes will yield the same potential. A commonly used electric circuit is the Wheatstone Bridge, shown in its simplest form in Figure 8. The output voltage is found simply from the input voltage as just the difference between two voltage dividers: vo = vs � R4 R2 − R1 + R2 R3 + R4 � This circuit is used in situations in which one or more resistors varies with, say temperature or mechanical strain. The bridge can be balanced so that the output voltage is zero by adjusting one of the other resistors. Then relatively small variations in the sensing element can result in relatively big differences in the output voltage. If, for example R2 is the sensing element, R4 can be adjusted to balance the bridge. 5 Serial and Parallel Combinations There are a number of techniques for handling network problems, and we will not be able to investigate each of them in depth. We will, however, look into a few techniques for analysis which involve progressive simplification of the network. To start, we consider how one might handle series and parallel combinations of elements. A pair of elements is in series if the same current flows through both of them. If these elements are resistors and if the detail of voltage division between them is not required, it is possible to lump the two together as a single resistance. This is illustrated in Figure 9. The voltage across the current source is: vs = v1 + v2 = is R1 + is R2 = is (R1 + R2 ) The equivalent resistance for the series combination is then: Rseries = R1 + R2 5 (6)

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+ v1 − R1 + v + v3 − R3 vo s + v3 − R2 + v4 R4 − − v1 − + Figure 8: Wheatstone Bridge + is R1 vs R2 − + v2 − i2 Figure 9: Series Resistance Combination Similarly, resistance elements connected in parallel can be lumped if it is not necessary to know the details of division of current between them. Figure 10 shows this combination. Here, current i is simply: � � v v 1 1 i= + =v + R1 R2 R1 R2 The equivalent resistance for the parallel combination is then: Rpar = 1 R1 1 + 1 R2 = R1 R2 R1 + R2 (7) Because of the importance of parallel connection of resistances (and of other impedances), a special symbolic form is used for parallel construction. This is: R1 ||R2 = R1 R2 R1 + R2 (8) As an example, consider the circuit shown in Figure 11, part (a). Here, we have four, resistors arranged in an odd way to form a two- terminal network. To find the equivalent resistance of this thing, we can do a series of series-parallel combinations. The two resistors on the right can be combined as a series combination to form a single, two ohm resistor as shown in part (b). Then the equivalent resistor, which is in parallel with one of the 6

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