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Note for Linear and Digital IC integration - ICA By JNTU Heroes

  • Linear and Digital IC Application - ICA
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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UNIT I INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Page 3 3

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1.1 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature, low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon. The active components are transistors and diodes and passive components are resistors and capacitors. 1.2 Advantages of integrated circuits 1. Miniaturization and hence increased equipment density. 2. Cost reduction due to batch processing. 3. Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints. 4. Improved functional performance. 5. Matched devices. 6. Increased operating speeds. 7. Reduction in power consumption Depending upon the number of active devices per chip,there are different levels of integration 1.3 IC Package Types The op-amp ICs are available in various packages. The IC packages are classified as, 1. Metal Can 2. Dual In Line 3. Flat Pack 1.4 Metal Can package: Page 4 4

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1.5 Dual- in- Line Package: 1.6 Flat Pack: 1.7 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER: The differential amplifier consists of two symmetrical common-emitter sections and is capable of amplifying the difference between two input signals. The differential amplifier can amplify ac as well as dc input signals because it employs direct coupling. There are four types of differential amplifier configurations: (a)The dual Input, Balanced output differential amplifier DC Analysis------ IE =VEE - VBE/2RE, VCE=Vcc+ VBE-RcIc AC Analysis------- Ad=RC/re Ri1= Ri2=2βacre R01=R02=Rc (b)The dual input, unbalanced output differential Amplifier DC Analysis--------- IE =VEE - VBE/(2RE+Rin/βdc) VCE=Vcc+ VBE-RcICQ Page 5 5

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AC Analysis---------- Ad=RC/2re Ri1= Ri2=2βacre R 0 = Rc (c) The single input, balanced output differential Amplifier DC Analysis ---------IE =VEE - VBE/(2RE+Rin/βdc) VCE=Vcc+ VBE-RcICQ AC Analysis---------- IE =VEE - VBE/(2RE+Rin/βdc) Ri=2βacre R01=R02=Rc (d)The single input, unbalanced output differential Amplifier DC Analysis--------- IE =VEE - VBE/(2RE+Rin/βdc) VCE=Vcc+ VBE-RcICQ AC Analysis--------- Ad=RC/2re Ri=2βacre R0= Rc Page 6 6

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