LECTURE NOTES ON MULTIMEDIA & RICH INTERNET APPLICATIONS IV B. Tech II semester (JNTUH-R13)
UNIT 1 Fundamental Concepts in Text and Image What is Multimedia? When different people mention the term multimedia, they often have quite different, or even opposing, viewpoints. A PC vendor: a PC that has sound capability, a DVD-ROM drive, and perhaps the superiority of multimediaenabled microprocessors that understand additional multimedia instructions. A consumer entertainment vendor: interactive cable TV with hundreds of digital channels available, or a cable TV-like service delivered over a high-speed Internet connection. A Computer Science (CS) student: applications that use multiple modalities including text, images, drawings (graphics), animation, video, sound including speech, and interactivity. Multimedia and Computer Science: Graphics, HCI, visualization, computer vision, data compression, graph theory, networking, database systems. Components of Multimedia: Multimedia involves multiple modalities of text, audio, images, drawings, animation, and video. Examples of how these modalities are put to use: Video teleconferencing. Distributed lectures for higher education. Tele-medicine. Co-operative work environments. Searching in (very) large video and image databases for target visual objects. Augmented reality: placing real-appearing computer graphics and video objects into scenes. Including audio cues for where video-conference participants are located. Building searchable features into new video, and enabling very high- to very low-bit-rate use of new, scalable multi media products. Making multimedia components editable. Building inverse-Hollywood applications that can recreate the process by which a video was made. Using voice-recognition to build an interactive environment, say a kitchen-wall web browser. Multimedia Research Topics and Projects: To the computer science researcher, multimedia consists of a wide variety of topics: 1. Multimedia processing and coding: multimedia content analysis, content-based multimedia retrieval, multimedia security, audio/image/video processing, compression, etc. 2. Multimedia system support and networking: network protocols, Internet, operating systems, servers and clients, quality of service (QoS), and databases. 3. Multimedia tools, end-systems and applications: hypermedia systems, user interfaces, authoring systems. 4. Multi-model interaction and integration: web-everywhere devices, multimedia education including Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, and design and applications of virtual environments.
Current Multimedia Projects: Many exciting research projects are currently underway. Here are a few of them: 1. Camera-based object tracking technology: tracking of the control objects provides user control of the process. 2. 3D motion capture: used for multiple actor capture so that multiple real actors in a virtual studio can be used to automatically produce realistic animated models with natural movement. 3. Multiple views: allowing photo-realistic (video-quality) synthesis of virtual actors from several cameras or from a single camera under differing lighting. 4. 3D capture technology: allow synthesis of highly realistic facial animation from speech. 5. Specific multimedia applications: aimed at handicapped persons with low vision capability and the elderly a rich of endeavor. 6. Digital fashion: aims to develop smart clothing that can communicate with other such enhanced clothing using wireless communication, so as to artificially enhance human interaction in a social setting 7. Electronic House call system: an initiative for providing interactive health monitoring services to patients in their homes 8. Augmented Interaction applications: used to develop interfaces between real and virtual humans for tasks such as augmented story telling. Multimedia and Hypermedia: History of Multimedia: Brief history of use of Multimedia: Newspaper: the first mass communication medium that uses text, graphics, and images Motion Pictures: conceived of in 1830's in order to observe motion too rapid for reception by the human eye. Thomas Alva Edision invented motion picture camera in 1887 Wireless Radio: 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent first radio transmission at Pontecchio, Italy Television: the new medium for the 20th century, established video as a commonly available medium and has since changed the world of mass communications. The connection between computers and ideas about multimedia covers what is actually only a short period: 1945: Vannevar Bush wrote a landmark article describing hypermedia system called Memex. 1960: Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext. 1967: Nicholas Negroponte formed the Architecture Machine Group. 1968: Douglas Engelbart demonstrated the On-Line System (NLS), very early hypertext program. 1969: Nelson and van Dam at Brown University created an early hypertext editor called FRESS. 1976: MIT Architecture Machine Group proposed a Multiple Media project resulted in Aspen Movie Map 1978: First hypermedia videodisk 1985: Negroponte and Wiesner co-founded the MIT Media Lab. 1989: Tim Berners-Lee proposed the World Wide Web 1990: Kristina Hooper Woolsey headed the Apple Multimedia Lab. 1991: MPEG-1 was approved as an international standard for digital video later MPEG-2,MPEG-4 The introduction of PDAs in 1991 began a new period in the use of computers in multimedia. 1992: JPEG was accepted as international standard for digital image compression later JPEG2000 The first MBone audio multicast on the Net was made. 1993: The University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications produced NCSA. Mosaic-the first full-edged browser. 1994: Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen created the Netscape program. 1995: The JAVA language was created for platform-independent application development. 1996: DVD video was introduced; high quality full-length movies were distributed on a single disk. 1998: XML 1.0 was announced as a W3C Recommendation.
Hand-held MP3 devices first made with devices holding 32MB of flash memory. 2000: WWW size was estimated at over 1 billion pages. Hypermedia and Multimedia Ted Nelson invented the term “Hyper Text” around 1965 Types of media: Linear media: Meant to read from Non-linear media: Meant to be read non-linearly, by beginning to end. Ex: Text books following links that point to other parts of the document or to other documents Ex: Hyper Text system Hypermedia: not constrained to be text-based, can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media - sound and video. Examples of Multimedia applications includes: Digital Video edition, E-magazines, WWW, Online reference books, games, home shopping, interactive TV, video conferencing, Interactive Movies. The World Wide Web (WWW) is best example of a hypermedia application. World Wide Web: WWW is maintained & developed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The W3C has listed the following goals for the WWW: Universal access of web resources (by everyone every-where). Effectiveness of navigating available information. Responsible use of posted material. 1) History of the WWW: 1960: Charles Goldfarb et al. developed the Generalized Markup Language (GML) for IBM. 1986: The ISO released a final version of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). 1990: Tim Berners-Lee invented the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) & Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). 1993: NCSA released an alpha version of Mosaic based on the version by Marc Andreessen for X-Windows the first popular browser. 1994: Marc Andreessen et al. formed Mosaic Communications Corporation later named as Netscape Communications Corporation. 1998: The W3C accepted XML version 1.0 specifications as a Recommendation. It is the main focus of W3C and supersedes HTML. 2) HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol): HTTP is a protocol that was originally designed for transmitting hypermedia, but can also support the transmission of any file type. HTTP is a stateless request/response protocol: no information carried over for the next request. The basic request format: Method URI Version Additional-Headers Message-body The URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): an identifier for the resource accessed, e.g. the host name, always preceded by the token “http://". URL could be Universal Resource Locator, if URI is included with Query strings. Method is a way of exchanging information or performing task on URI. Two popular methods: GET method that the information requested is in the request string itself