E.g. Digital functions in automobile, dashboard displays, braking systems etc.
Product-line software: Designed to provide a specific capability for use by many different
customers, product-line software can focus on a limited and esoteric market place or address mass
E.g. Word processing, spreadsheets, computer graphics, multimedia, entertainment, database
management, personal and business financial applications
Web-applications: WebApps are evolving into sophisticated computing environments that not
only provide standalone features, computing functions, and content to the end user, but also are
integrated with corporate databases and business applications.
Artificial intelligence software: AI software makes use of nonnumerical algorithms to solve
complex problems that are not amenable to computation or straightforward analysis. Application
within this area includes robotics, expert systems, pattern recognition, artificial neural networks,
theorem proving, and game playing.
The following are the new challenges on the horizon:
The “new economy”
Ubiquitous computing: The challenge for software engineers will be to develop systems and application
software that will allow small devices, personal computers and enterprise system to communicate across
Net sourcing: The challenge for software engineers is to architect simple and sophisticated applications
that provide benefit to targeted end-user market worldwide.
Open Source: The challenge for software engineers is to build source that is self descriptive but more
importantly to develop techniques that will enable both customers and developers to know what changes
have been made and how those changes manifest themselves within the software.
The “new economy”: The challenge for software engineers is to build applications that will facilitate mass
communication and mass product distribution.
Beliefs about software and the process used to build it- can be traced to the earliest days of computing
myths have a number of attributes that have made them insidious.
Management myths: Manages with software responsibility, like managers in most disciplines, are often
under pressure to maintain budgets, keep schedules from slipping, and improve quality.
Myth: We already have a book that’s full of standards and procedures for building software - Wont that
provide my people with everything they need to know?
Reality: The book of standards may very well exist but, is it used? Are software practitioners aware of its
existence? Does it reflect modern software engineering practice?
Myth: If we get behind schedule, we can add more programmers and catch up.
Reality: Software development is not a mechanistic process like manufacturing. As new people are added,
people who were working must spend time educating the new comers, thereby reducing the amount of time
spend on productive development effort. People can be added but only in a planned and well coordinated
Myth: If I decide to outsource the software project to a third party, I can just relax and let that firm built it.
Reality: If an organization does not understand how to manage and control software projects internally, it
will invariably struggle when it outsources software projects.