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Total Quality Management

by Jntu Heroes
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Jntu Heroes
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT I Introduction – Need for Quality – Evolution of quality- Definition of quality – Dimensions of manufacturing and service quality – Basic concepts of TQM – Definition of TQM – TQM Frame work – Contribution of Deming, Juran and Crosby – Barriers to TQM INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY One of the important issues that business has focused on in the last two decades is “quality”. The other issues are cost and delivery. Quality has been widely considered as a key element for success in business in the present competitive market. Quality refers to meeting the needs and expectations of customers. It is important to understand that quality is about more than a product simply working properly. Quality refers to certain standards and the ways and means by which those standards are achieved, maintained and improved. Quality is not just confined to products and services. It is a homogeneous element of any aspect of doing things with high degree of perfection. For example Business success depends on the quality decision making. EVOLUTION OF QUALITY Time Events Until 1960s Prior to the Quality is an art 20th century Demands overcome potential production An era of workmanship F.Taylor The scientific approach to management resulting in rationalization of work 1900s and its break down leads to greater need for standardization, inspection and supervision Shewart Statistical beginnings and study of quality control. In parallel, studies by R 1930s A Fisher on experimental design; the beginning of control charts at western Electric in USA Late Quality standards and approaches are introduced in France and Japan. 1930s Beginning of SQC, reliability and maintenance engineering 1942 Seminal work by Deming at the ministry of war in USA on quality control and sampling Working group setup by Juran and Dodge on SQC in US army Concepts of acceptance sampling devised 1944 Daodge and Deming carried out seminal research on acceptance sampling 1945 Founding of the Japan standard association 1946 Founding of the ASQC 1950 Visit of Deming in Japan at the invitation of K Ishikawa 1951 Quality assurance increasingly accepted 1954 TQC in Japan ; Book published 1956
1957 Founding of European organization for the control of quality After 1960s 1961 The Martin Co in USA introduces the zero defects approach while developing and producing Pershing Missiles. Quality motivation is starting in the US and integrated programmes begun 1962 Quality circles are started in Japan 1964 Ishikawa publishes book on Quality management 1970 Iskiawa publishes the book on the basics of quality circles and the concept of Total Quality is affirmed and devised in Japanese industries 1970 to Just – in –Time and quality become crucial for competitiveness. A large 1980 number of US and European corporations are beginning to appreciate the advance of Japan’s industries. Taguchi popularizes the use of environmental design to design robust systems and products 1980+ Facing the rising sun challenge in quality management Development and introduction of FMSs and greater dependence on supplier contracts. Growth of economic based on quality control, information software packages 1990+ The management of quality has become a necessity that is recognized at all levels of management Increasing importance is given to off line quality management for the design of robust manufacturing processes and products. The growth of process optimization QUALITY – DEFINITION 1. Predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to the market -Deming 2. Fitness for use-Juran 3. Conformance to requirements - Crosby 4. Minimum loss imparted by a product to society from the time the product is shipped - Taguchi 5. A way of managing tile organization -Feigenbaum 6. Correcting and preventing loss, not living with loss - Hosffin . 7. The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs – ISO QUANITIFICATION OF QUALITY P E P = Performance Q= E = Expectations
DIMENSION OF QUALITY 1. Performance 4. Reliability 7. Response 2. Features 5. Durability 8. Aesthetics 3. Conformance 6. Service 9. Reputation TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Total - Made up of the whole Quality- Degree of excellence a product or service provides Management- Act, Art or manner of handling, controlling, directing, etc... Why TQM: 1. A question of survival in the intense competitive environment 2. Increasing customer consciousness DEFINITION: 1. TQM is the management approach of an organization, centered on quality, based on me participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction. and benefits to all members of me organization and to society.- ISO 2. TQM is an integrated organizational approach in delighting customers (both internal and external) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through every one involved with the organization working on continuous improvement in all products, services, and processes along with proper problem solving methodology - INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE ( ISI ) 3. TQM is a. people - focused management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower cost. TQM is a total system approach (not a separate area of program ), and an integral part of high level strategy. It works horizontally across functions and departments, involving all employees, top to bottom, and exceeds backwards and forward to include the supply chain and the customer chain – TOTAL QUALITY FORUM OF USA CHARACTERISTICS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Customer Oriented Long term commitment for continuous improvement of all process Team work Continuous involvement of top management Continuous improving at all levels and all areas of responsibility
BASIC CONCEPTS OF TQM: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Top management commitment Focus on the customer – Both internal and external Effective involvement and utilization of entire work force Continuous improvement Treating suppliers as partners Establishing performance measures for the processes PRINCIPLES OF TQM: 1. Customers requirements - ( both internal & external) must be met first time & every time 2. Everybody must be involved 3. Regular two way communication must be promoted I 4. Identify the training needs and supply it to the employees 5. Top management commitment is must 6. Every job must add value 7. Eliminate waste & reduce total cost 8. Promote creativity 9. Focus on team work. TQM FRAME WORK

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