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Note for Transportation Engineering 1 - TE1 By JNTU Heroes

  • Transportation Engineering 1 - TE1
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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ICHAPTER 3: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING AND REGULATION Basic Parameters of Traffic Volume, Speed and density Traffic volume studies-Data collection and presentation Speed studies –Data collection and presentationOrigin and Destinations studies, Parking Studies On street and off-street parking Road Accidents – Causes and Preventive measures Accident Data Recording Condition Diagram and Collision Diagrams Traffic Signs – Types and Specifications Road markings-Need for Road Markings Types of Road MarkingsDesign of Traffic Signals -Webster method. CHAPTER 4: INTERSECTION DESIGN Types of Intersections Conflicts at Intersections Requirements of At –Grade intersectionTypes of at-Grade IntersectionsChannelization -Traffic Islands Types of Grade Separated Intersections Rotary Intersection –concept of Rotary Design factors of rotary Advantages and limitations of rotary intersections CHAPTER 5: HIGHWAY MATERIAL, CONSTRUCTION ANDMAINTENANCE: Highway Material characterization Subgrade soil Stone aggregate

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Bitumen materials Construction of gravel road Construction of water bound macadam road Construction of bituminous pavements Surface dressing Bitumen bound macadam Bituminous concrete Construction of cement concrete pavements Construction of joints in cement concrete pavements Joint filter and seal Pavement failures Maintenance of highways Highway Drainage

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CHAPTER 1 HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING Overview Road transport is one of the most common modes of transport. Roads in the form of track ways, human pathways etc. were used even from the pre-historic times. Since then many experiments were going on to make the riding safe and comfort. Thus road construction became an inseparable part of many civilizations and empires. In this chapter we will see the different generations of road and their characteristic features. Also we will discuss about the highway planning in India. History of highway engineering The history of highway engineering gives us an idea about the roads of ancient times. Roads in Rome were constructed in a large scale and it radiated in many directions helping them in military operations. Thus they are considered to be pioneers in road construction. In this section we will see in detail about Ancient roads, Roman roads, British roads, French roads etc. Ancient Roads The first mode of transport was by foot. These human pathways would have been developed for specific purposes leading to camp sites, food, streams for drinking water etc. The next major mode of transport was the use of animals for transporting both men and materials. Since these loaded animals required more horizontal and vertical clearances than the walking man, track ways emerged. The invention of wheel in Mesopotamian civilization led to the development of animal drawn vehicles. Then it became necessary that the road surface should be capable of carrying greater loads. Thus roads with harder surfaces emerged. To provide adequate strength to carry the wheels, the new ways tended to follow the sunny drier side of a path. These have led to the development of foot-paths. After the invention of wheel, animal drawn vehicles were developed and the need for hard surface road emerged. Traces of such hard roads were obtained from various ancient civilization dated as old as 3500 BC. The earliest authentic record of road was found from Assyrian empire constructed about 1900 BC. Roman roads The earliest large scale road construction is attributed to Romans who constructed an extensive system of roads radiating in many directions from Rome. They were a remarkable achievement and provided travel times across 2.7 m

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Sloping Wearing Surface 5cm thick Shoulder Slope 1:20 ________ ______ _ ________ ______ ______ _ _ Side _ drain _ __ ______________________________ ______ Broken stones 8cm thick Large foundation stones on edge17cm thick Figure 2:2: French roads Europe, Asia, Minor and North Africa. Romans recognized that the fundamentals of good road construction were to provide good drainage, good material and good workmanship. Their roads were very durable, and some still exist. Roman roads were always constructed on a firm - formed subgrade strengthened where necessary with wooden piles. The roads were bordered on both sides by longitudinal drains. The next step was the construction of the agger. This was a raised formation up to a 1 meter high and 15 m wide and was constructed with materials excavated during the side drain construction. This was then topped with a sand leveling course. The agger contributed greatly to moisture control in the pavement. The pavement structure on the top of the agger varied greatly. In the case of heavy traffic, a surface course of large 250 mm thick hexagonal ag stones were provided. A typical cross section of roman road is given in Figure 2:1 the main features of the Roman roads are that they were built straight regardless of gradient and used heavy foundation stones at the bottom. They mixed lime and volcanic puzzolana to make mortar and they added gravel to this mortar to make concrete. Thus concrete was a major Roman road making innovation. 2.2.3 French roads The next major development in the road construction occurred during the regime of Napoleon. The significant contributions were given by Tresaguet in 1764 and a typical cross section of this road is given in Figure 2:2. He developed a cheaper method of construction than the lavish and locally unsuccessful revival of Roman practice. The pavement used 200 mm pieces of quarried stone of a more compact form and shaped such that they had at least one at side which was placed on a compact formation. Smaller pieces of broken stones were then compacted into the spaces between larger stones to provide a level surface. Finally the running layer was made with a layer of 25 mm sized broken stone. All this structure was placed in a trench in order to keep the running surface level with the surrounding country side. This created major drainage problems which were counteracted by making the surface as impervious as possible, cambering the surface and providing

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