Introduction: Origin of soils, formation of soils, clay mineralogy and soil structure, basic
terminology and their relations, index properties of soils.
Soil classification: Particle size distribution, use of particle size distribution curve, Particle
size classification, textural classification, HRB classification, Unified classification system,
Indian standard soil classification system, Field identification of soils.
Soil moisture: Types of soil water, capillary tension, capillary siphoning.
Stress conditions in soil: Total stress, pore pressure and effective stress.
Module – II
Permeability: Darcy’s law, permeability, factors affecting permeability, determination of
permeability (laboratory and field methods), permeability of stratified soil deposits.
Estimation of yield from wells.
Seepage analysis: Seepage pressure, quick condition, laplace equation for two –dimensional
flow, flow net, properties and methods of construction of flow net, application of flow net,
seepage through anisotropic soil and non-homogenous soil, seepage through earth dam.
Module – III
Soil compaction: Compaction mechanism, factors affecting compaction, effect of compaction
on soil properties, density moisture content relationship in compaction test, standard and
modified proctor compaction tests, field compaction methods, relative compaction,
Soil consolidation: Introduction, spring analogy, one dimensional consolidation, Terzaghi’s
theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test, determination of coefficient of
Shear strength of soils: Mohr’s stress circle, theory of failure for soils, determination of shear
strength (direct shear test, tri-axial compression test, unconfined compression test, van shear
test), shear characteristics of cohesionless soils and cohesive soils.
Stabilization of soil: Introduction, mechanical stabilization, cement stabilization, lime
stabilization, bituminous stabilization, chemical stabilization, thermal stabilization, electrical
stabilization, stabilization by grouting, use of geo-synthetic materials, reinforced earth.
1. Geotechnical Engineering, C. Venkatramaiah, New Age International publishers.
2. Geotechnical Engineering, T.N. Ramamurthy & T.G. Sitharam, S. Chand & Co.
3. Soil Mechanics, T.W. Lambe & Whiteman, Wiley Eastern Ltd, Nw