JNTU ANANTAPUR (III –II)
Concepts of Management and Organization – Functions of Management – Evolution of
Management Thought: Taylor’s Scientific Management, Fayol’s Principles of Management,
Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Mayo’s Hawthorne Experiments, Hertzberg’s
Two Factor Theory of Motivation, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs – Systems
Approach to Management.
Functions of Management:
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical
and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given
purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These
activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather
these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.
Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry,
“There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating
and controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize,
to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’
where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Coordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of
management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing,
Directing and Controlling.
For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but
practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each
function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others.
Department of Mechanical Engineering