(Basic ideas)-advantages-hard and soft water-carbonate, non carbonate hardness-methods of expressing hardness-mg/lit, ppmsimple problems-Estimation of total hardness by EDTA methodproblems involving total, carbonate, non-carbonate hardness in ppmsoftening of hard water ion- Exchange method, Reverse Osmosis
method -standards of drinking water-Municipal water supply-purification
(sedimentation, filtration and sterilization)-Disadvantages of hard water
in boilers -Scale formation, Corrosion of boiler metal, Caustic
Embrittlement - Priming and Foaming.
2.3 SOLID STATE
Structure of Solids- Definition and examples for ionic, Molecular,
Covalent and Metallic solids- Unit cell- bcc, fcc and hcp packing of metals
–examples and properties reflected by the packing of atoms. (no
COLLOIDS, NANO PARTICLES AND PHOTO
Definition- sols-True solution and Colloidal solution- differences-TypesLyophilic & Lyophobic sols- Differences.- Properties- Tyndall effect,
Brownian movement, Electrophoresis, Coagulation – Industrial
applications- Smoke Precipitation - Cottrell's method, Purification of
water, Cleaning action of soap, tanning of leather and sewage disposal
3.2 NANO PARTICLES
Definition- Area of application - Medicine, Electronics and biomaterials.
Introduction-Important terms- charge transfer, electronic energy
migration, emission, Excited state, Frequency, Ground state,
Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, Chemiluminescence - photo electric
cell- photo emission cell- photo synthesis-general chemical reactionschlorophyll and accessory pigents - Mechanism of light reactions-Dark
reaction-photosynthesis and acid rain.