Sai Tirumala NVR Engineering College
JNTUK R13 UNIT 1 & 2
UNIT-1 & 2
Introduction: Definition-uses of surveying-overview of plane surveying (chain, compass and plain
table), objectives, principles and classification – errors in survey measurements.
Distance and Direction: distance measurement conventions and methods; use of chain and tape,
electronic distance measurements (EDM) – principles of electro optical EDM-errors and corrections
to linear measurements – compass survey – meridians, azimuths and bearings, declination,
computation of angles, Traversing – purpose - type of traversing – traverse computation – traverse
adjustment – omitted measurements.
Surveying is perhaps as old as human civilization. Surveying is one form or the other hand
been used for distinguishing one persons land from other since time immemorial. In ancient time
Babylonians practiced types of surveying as early as 2500 B.C. Surveying in some form is used in
India and Egypt to divide the land for taxation purpose even in 1400 B.C. The surveying in those
times used triangular frames fitted with plumb bob to obtained level foundation.
It is the art of determining the relative position of point on, above or below the surface
of earth by means of direct or indirect measurement of distance, direction and elevation.
The relative positions are determined by measuring horizontal distance, vertical distance(elevation)
accurately using various surveying instruments i.e. It also indicates the art of establishing points by
pre determined angular and linear measurements from the plan or map on to the ground.
Objectives of surveying:
The aim of surveying is to prepare a map to show the relative position of the object on the
surface of the earth. The map is drawn to some suitable scale. It shows the natural features of a
country such as towns, villages, roads, railways, rivers, etc. map may also include details of different
engineering works such as roads railways, irrigation canal, etc.
Uses of surveying:
Surveying may be used for the following various applications.
1. To prepare a topography map which shows the hills, valleys, rivers, village, towns, forest, etc.
of a country.
2. To prepare a cadastral map showing the boundaries of fields, houses and other properties.
3. To prepare an engineering map which shows the details of engineering works such as roads,
railways, reservoirs, irrigation canals, etc.
Department Of Civil Engineering