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Green Building

by Garikapati Rambabu
Type: NoteInstitute: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Specialization: Computer Science EngineeringDownloads: 76Views: 691Uploaded: 7 months agoAdd to Favourite

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Garikapati Rambabu
Garikapati Rambabu
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUTION 1.1 General Nowadays, we all know that our Mother earth is not well because of excessive pollution caused by mankind. Globally, buildings are responsible for at least 40% of energy use. An estimated 42% of the global water consumption and 50% of the global consumption of raw materials is consumed by buildings when taking into account the manufacture, construction, and operational period of buildings. In addition, building activities contribute an estimated 50% of the world’s air pollution, 42% of its greenhouse gases, 50% of all water pollution, 48% of all solid wastes and 50% of all chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to the environment [1]. New technologies and protocols are introduced to save our Mother earth. Green building is one of them. India too faces the environmental challenges of the construction sector. The gross built-up area added to commercial and residential spaces was about 40.8 million square metres in 2004-05, which is about 1% of annual average constructed floor area around the world and the trends show a sustained growth of 10% over the coming years. With a near consistent 8% rise in annual energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, building energy consumption has seen an increase, from a low 14% in the 1970s to nearly 33% in 2004-05[2]. Energy consumption would continue to rise unless suitable actions to improve energy efficiency are taken up immediately. 1.2 Defining Green Building Green building means a high performance building property that considers and reduces its impact on the environment and human health. Green buildings are 1
designed and constructed to maximize whole life-cycle performance, conserve resources, and enhance the comfort of their occupants. However, as a general concept, green building is simply a way of building that minimizes the environmental and human health impacts of the building both during construction and subsequent operation. Traditional buildings negatively impact the environment and human health and comfort in a number of ways. a. Indoor climate control provided by mechanical heating and cooling, lighting and appliances uses energy resources b. Plumbing fixtures, irrigation and potable water needs depletes water resources c. Impervious materials on site limits infiltration of storm water and groundwater recharge d. New materials used in construction deplete non-renewable or scarce natural resources e. Chemical use in building materials and operations affects building occupants' comfort and contributes to outdoor and indoor air contaminants f. Waste accumulation occurs during demolition and construction and during operation of the building An additional and arguably synonymous component of this definition is the inclusion of an integrated design process. Integrated design is essentially a wholebuilding, systematic approach in making design decisions. This proves to be a critical piece of the green building process that is often overlooked, and has serious implications for the final product. According to Marian Keeler and Bill Burke's sustainable architecture textbook [3], "the integrated whole building approach, which considers life cycle at all levels, is essential to our contemporary definition of green 2
building" [3]. An example of the virtues of an integrated design process is the collaboration between the mechanical engineer and the architect in designing the HVAC system. If the architect is designing a super-insulated, high-performing building envelope that significantly lowers the amount of heat the building requires, the mechanical engineer should take this into account and design a much smaller heating and cooling system. If there was no cooperation and strategic thinking between the architect and the mechanical engineer, and each designed their particular piece of the building entirely separately from the other, the outcome would be much more inefficient and costly in both first costs and operations. While there is no officially accepted definition of green building, Keeler and Burke's book [3] provides a helpful framework for what elements any green building project strives to include in its design and construction. a. Tackle site-demolition issues and construction-and-packing-waste issues, as well as waste generated by users of the building b. Strive for efficiency in a broad area of resource use c. Minimize the impact of mining and harvesting for materials production and provide measures for replenishing natural resources. d. Reduce soil, water, and energy use during materials manufacture, building construction, and occupant use. e. Plan for low embodied energy during shipment f. Proceed logically, as the chain of materials production is traced. g. Conserve and design for the efficiency of energy consumed by powering mechanical systems for heating and cooling, lighting, and plug loads. h. Provide a "healthy" indoor environment 3
i. Avoid building and cleaning materials that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their synergistic interactions j. Avoid equipment without controls or appropriate filters for particulate entry or production k. Control entry of outdoor pollutants through through proper air filtration, ventilation and walk-off off mats, as well as occupant-born occupant born contaminants, such as personal care products. l. Design a connection to the exterior providing natural ventilation, daylight, and views Fig 1.1 Schematic Diagram Highlighting Highlighting Green Building Features [1] Several building processes and occupant functions generate large amounts of waste, which can be recycled for use or can be reused directly. Buildings are thus one of the major pollutants that affect urban air quality and an contribute ibute to climate change. 4

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