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Note for Environmental Studies - ES by GARIKAPATI RAMBABU

  • Environmental Studies - ES
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  • Civil Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 6 Topics
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Text from page-3

FOREST RESOURCES Uses and over exploitation Biotic community predominantly trees, shrubs and other woody vegetation usually with closed canopy Benefits – direct a) fuel wood b) timber c) bamboos d) food – leaves, roots and tubers of plants, meat – food of forest tribes e) shelter – moses, ferns, insects, birds, reptiles, mammals and microorganisms f) paper g) rayon h) forest products – gums, honey, drugs, spices, insecticides, waxes, horns, musk and ivory Indirect benefits a) conservation of soil b) soil improvement c) reduction in atmospheric pollution d) control of climate - cools the atmosphere and helps in increasing rainfall e) control of water flow Deforestation Deforestation is permanent destruction of indigenous forests and wood land. It does not include Industrial forests such as plantations, coffee, tea and rubber. Deforestation is worlds most pressing land use problem 12 million hectares of forest land is cleared annually By 2050 most of tropical forest could be lost except isolated Amazon and Zaire basins Destruction of forest land has led to overall deterioration of environment. Causes of deforestation 1. population explosion 2. forest fires 3. grazing animals 4. pest attack 5. natural calamities – floods, storms, lightning damage forests 6. mining and mineral processing 7. dams and reservoirs 8. irrigation canals 9. military activities 10. roads and railways Effects of deforestation - habitat destruction of wild animals - soil erosion - reduction in oxygen liberated by plants - decrease in availability forest products - loss of cultural diversity - loss of bio diversity - scarcity of fuel wood for people living near by forests - lowering of water table due to more run off - raise in Co2 level resulting global warming, melting of ice and flooding of coastal areas Forest management Economic use of timber and fuel wood Renewable sources to be developedover grazing and deforestation to be prohibited

Text from page-4

Pest and fire control to be adopted Forest to improved by applying fertilizers, irrigation, weed control and tissue culture Afforestation programme Agro forestry Social forestry – fuel wood, fodder, edible fruits, agricultural implements and construction purpose Urban forestry Vanamahotsavam – Massive replantation is being done since 1950 in February and July for a week in urban fallow land Vanasamrakshana samithi – groups/ societies of local people living around forests are formed to protest forests. Effect of mining and construction of dams Mining Mining is extraction of economic minerals and building materials from the earth. These materials may be extracted by adopting opencast mining or underground mining. Generally most of the mines are located in forest areas. In opencast mining it requires removal of huge quantity of unwanted material along with useful minerals. Mining activity requires diversion of forest land for various activities. Forest land is diverted for - opening of mine and extraction of material dumping of unwanted waste material road to be formed for transportation of men and materials. Big mines require residential accommodation for employees and providing basic amenities Effects Loose material of mining is carried by rain water and causes deposition of silt in dams, reduces life of dams. Growth of aquatic animals in turbid water will get effected. Mining involves blasting activity and animals living in near by areas will get disturbed and migrate to other areas. Dust generation is very high in blasting and mining this dust falls on the plants and effects growth of plants in forest. Dust causes deterioration of quality of soil in forest. Tribals living in these areas will get disturbed as they prefer to live in isolated forest areas Livelihood of tribals will get effected Dams Many of the cases suitable sites for construction of dams and reservoirs are available in forest areas. In such cases it requires diversion of forest land for various activities of dams and related activities. Forest land is diverted for - construction of dam and water storage structure - road facility for transportation - irrigation canals - administration and maintenance office of dam - residential accommodation We loose millions of hectares of forest land due to inundation of dams. Tribals living in these areas will get disturbed as they prefer to live in isolated forest areas Livelihood of tribals will get effected

Text from page-5

MINERAL RESOURCES Mineral – inorganic substance with definite structure and composition that occurs naturally in the earth crust Mineral deposit – is a concentration of solid, liquid and gaseous material in the earth crust that can be extracted profitably now or may be near future. Mineral resources are non renewable They are classified into 3 categories Metal – iron, copper, manganese, copper , aluminium Non metallic – limestone, clay, feldspar, talc, gypsum Fuels – coal, oil and natural gas Use and exploitation Industrial development of a country depends chiefly on its mineral resources and succesful utilisation of these resources. India is not self sufficient like other countries in all her requirements. Every year millions of foreign exchange is spent for importing necessary metals and minerals and fuels. At the same time India occupies prominent position in the world in the production of iron, manganese and barites. Importing copper, lead, zinc, sulphur, phosphates, coal, petroleum and gas from other countries. Minerals are used every where in our day to day activities. - Steel, copper Electricity Building materials and construction Refractory Fertilizers and pesticides Energy Nuclear energy Paper Food – salt, sugar Water treatment Cosmetics Chemicals Ornaments Population growth, industrialisation, change in life styles are depleting our available resources at increasing rate. At present rate of extraction some of the minerals are expected to exhaust and we have to look for alternative sources and materials.

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