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- Digital Image Processing - DIP
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**Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP**- Computer Science Engineering
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LECTURE NOTES ON DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

► What is Digital Image Processing? Digital Image Image is a representation, likeness, or imitation of an object or thing Common Digital image formats include: Binary images or single bit images, Gray scale images, Color images A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. Pixel values typically represent gray levels, colours, heights, opacities etc. Pixels are the elements of a digital image — a two-dimensional function f (x,y), The amplitude of f is called intensity or x and y are spatial coordinates. gray level at the point (x, y) What is meant by Digital Image Processing? Explain how digital images can be represented? An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function, f(x, y), where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude OR intensity OR gray level of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) . When x, y, and the amplitude values of f are all finite, discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image. each of these has a particular location and value. These elements are referred to as picture elements, image elements, pels, and pixels. Pixel is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital imag. The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. A color image is just three functions pasted together. We can write this as a “vector-valued” function: r ( x, y) f ( x, y) g( x, y)

b( x, y)

Representing Digital Images: Continuous image, say a film positive is a function of 2 continuous variables f (s,t) This can be converted into a digital image by scanning; sampling and quantization Sample into a 2D array f(x,y), M rows and N columns, (x,y) = discrete coordinates, x = 0, 1, 2,…, M-1 and y = 0, 1, 2…, N-1 Section of the real plane spanned by the coordinates of an image = spatial domain x and y are called spatial variables or spatial coordinates f (x,y) can be represented in three ways: Image plotted as a surface, Image displayed as a visual intensity array, Numerical array

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