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# Electrical Machines 2

by Jntu Heroes
: Note: Jawaharlal nehru technological university anantapur college of engineering : 2: 45: 11 months ago

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Jntu Heroes
LECTURE NOTES ON ELECTRICAL MACHINES - II
UNIT-I Single Phase Transformers Introduction The transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another electrical circuit. The two circuits may be operating at different voltage levels but always work at the same frequency. Basically transformer is an electro-magnetic energy conversion device. It is commonly used in electrical power system and distribution systems. It can change the magnitude of alternating voltage or current from one value to another. This useful property of transformer is mainly responsible for the widespread use of alternating currents rather than direct currents i.e., electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. Transformers have no moving parts, rugged and durable in construction, thus requiring very little attention. They also have a very high efficiency as high as 99%. Single Phase Transformer A transformer is a static device of equipment used either for raising or lowering the voltage of an a.c. supply with a corresponding decrease or increase in current. It essentially consists of two windings, the primary and secondary, wound on a common laminated magnetic core as shown in Fig 1. The winding connected to the a.c. source is called primary winding (or primary) and the one connected to load is called secondary winding (or secondary). The alternating voltage V1 whose magnitude is to be changed is applied to the primary. Depending upon the number of turns of the primary (N1) and secondary (N2), an alternating e.m.f. E2 is induced in the secondary. This induced e.m.f. E2 in the secondary causes a secondary current I2. Consequently, terminal voltage V2 will appear across the load. If V2 > V1, it is called a step up-transformer. If V2 < V1, it is called a step-down transformer.
Fig. 2.1 Schematic diagram of single phase transformer Constructional Details Depending upon the manner in which the primary and secondary windings are placed on the core, and the shape of the core, there are two types of transformers, called (a) core type, and (b) shell type. Core-type and Shell-type Construction In core type transformers, the windings are placed in the form of concentric cylindrical coils placed around the vertical limbs of the core. The low-voltage (LV) as well as the highvoltage (HV) winding are made in two halves, and placed on the two limbs of core. The LV winding is placed next to the core for economy in insulation cost. Figure 2.1(a) shows the crosssection of the arrangement. In the shell type transformer, the primary and secondary windings are wound over the central limb of a three-limb core as shown in Figure 2.1(b). The HV and LV windings are split into a number of sections, and the sections are interleaved or sandwiched i.e. the sections of the HV and LV windings are placed alternately. Fig: 2.1 Core type & shell type transformer
Core The core is built-up of thin steel laminations insulated from each other. This helps in reducing the eddy current losses in the core, and also helps in construction of the transformer. The steel used for core is of high silicon content, sometimes heat treated to produce a high permeability and low hysteresis loss. The material commonly used for core is CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) steel. Conductor material used for windings is mostly copper. However, for small distribution transformer aluminum is also sometimes used. The conductors, core and whole windings are insulated using various insulating materials depending upon the voltage. Insulating Oil In oil-immersed transformer, the iron core together with windings is immersed in insulating oil. The insulating oil provides better insulation, protects insulation from moisture and transfers the heat produced in core and windings to the atmosphere. The transformer oil should possess the following qualities: (a) High dielectric strength, (b) Low viscosity and high purity, (c) High flash point, and (d) Free from sludge. Transformer oil is generally a mineral oil obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil. Tank and Conservator The transformer tank contains core wound with windings and the insulating oil. In large transformers small expansion tank is also connected with main tank is known as conservator. Conservator provides space when insulating oil expands due to heating. The transformer tank is provided with tubes on the outside, to permits circulation of oil, which aides in cooling. Some additional devices like breather and Buchholz relay are connected with main tank. Buchholz relay is placed between main tank and conservator. It protect the transformer under extreme heating of transformer winding. Breather protects the insulating oil from moisture when the cool transformer sucks air inside. The silica gel filled breather absorbs moisture when air enters the tank. Some other necessary parts are connected with main tank like, Bushings, Cable Boxes, Temperature gauge, Oil gauge, Tapings, etc.