PART- B UNIT-5: Measurements and measurement systems: • Definition, significance of measurement, generalized measurement system • Definitions and concept of accuracy, precision, calibration, threshold, sensitivity, hysteresis, repeatability, linearity, loading effect, system response-time delay. \ • Errors in measurement, classification of errors. • Transducers, transfer efficiency, primary and secondary transducers, electrical, mechanical, electronic transducers, advantages of each type transducers. PART- B UNIT-6: Intermediate modifying and terminating devices: Mechanical systems, inherent problems, electrical intermediate modifying devices, input circuitry, ballast circuit, electronic amplifiers and telemetry. Terminating devices, mechanical, cathode ray oscilloscope, oscillographs, X-Y plotters. Learning outcomes At the end of unit 5 one will be able to understand; • The importance of measurement/ Definitions • The various types of measurement • Difference between primary, secondary and tertiary measurements • Error analysis Mechanical Measurements • Measurement has become a natural part of our everyday life . • We require measurement for measuring lengths,temperature, force,etc. • Measurements means determination of anything that exists in some amount. • Measurement of any quantity is essential in order to control it. For ex, one must be able to measure a variable such as ‘temperature’ or ‘flow’ in order to control it. • The accuracy of control is dependent on the accuracy of measurement • Hence, good knowledge of measurement is essential for design of systems. Definition of measurement: Measurement is defined as the process of obtaining a quantitative comparison between a predefined standard & an unknown magnitude. Example-consider the measurement of length of bar. We make use of a scale/steel ruler(i.e a standard) Definition of Standard Standard is a value of some quantity which is setup and established by authority as a rule for measurement of a quantity. The system of measurement must be related to a known standard or else the standard has no meaning. • Any system may be represented by a simple block diagram.
• • • Simple diagrams of rectangles and circles connected by lines with indicators of input and output directions. Shows the essential elements of a system. Functional arrangements + functions of each element. Length of the bar-unknown quantity (measure and) Compare Scale-pre-defined standard i.e. compare the unknown length of the bar with a known length/pre-defined standard. We say that the bar measures so many mms, cms or inches in length.Definition-measurement is an act of quantitative comparison between an unknown magnitude and pre-defined standard. Basic Requirements of Measuring System Two main requirements must be met in the act of measurement. They are; • The standard used for comparison must be accurately defined and commonly accepted. • The procedure employed for the measurement & the apparatus used for comparison must be provable. Significance of Measurements 1. We require measuring quantities for performance in our day to day activities. 2. Fundamental requirement of any process is the measurement. Example- 3 4 5. 6. 7. i.e. input is fed to the system it undergoes a process output is indicated. i.e. output is compared with input-measurement. Quantities pertaining to operation & performance of the device being developed. Measurement provides the fundamental basis for research & development as it involves measurement of various quantities and parameters. Also, a fundamental element of any control process, which requires the measured discrepancy between the actual & desired performances. • Measurement is also considered as a method of inspection • Measurement technology combined with computer integrated manufacturing and database management systems provide information based process control • I.e. to prevent the occurrence of more number of defects
8) To ensure proper performance in operations of modern power stations to monitor temperature, pressure, vibration amplitudes etc. 9) Establish the cost of products on the basis of amount of material, power, time & labor, etc. 10) Place/give realistic tolerance for each of the measured values. To establish the validity of design 1. Design of manufactured goods 2. Design of machinery to perform manufacturing operations 3. Design of power sources 4. Design of roads, waterways and other system. 5. To study the operation features, limitation and difficulties that are inherent in the systems. 6. For proper maintenance of the equipment. 7. To determine the system response(Reply of the systems to given input) 8. For correct recording of the output data(weather forecasting, experimental values, interpretation etc.) Other applications of measurements 1. • • • Application of theory Broaden the engineering knowledge by application of theory. Learn to verify a theoretical model or to verify/modify it by conducting experiments. Develop ability to apply some basic principle in a variety of engineering studiesinterdisciplinary approach. 2. • • • Techniques of experimentation Become acquainted with available experimentation. Learn to interpret experimental data. Develop competence in sampling data. 3. • • • Communication and reporting Learn to organize and direct experimental team. Learn procedures and develop abilities in report writing. Learn to support conclusions and recommend improvements. 4. Professional • Provide examples of experimental research and development. • Develop competence in applying engineering judgment. Hence considering the above, it can be concluded that measurements are quite essential in the • Design of a component. • A process to be operated with minimum cost having maximum efficiency. Fundamental methods of Measurement Two basic methods are commonly employed for measurement. (a) Direct comparison with primary or secondary standard. (b) Indirect comparison through the use of calibrated system.
Two basic methods are commonly employed for measurement. (a) Direct comparison with primary or secondary standard. (b) Indirect comparison through the use of calibrated system. Direct comparison In this method, measurement is made directly by comparing the unknown magnitude with a standard & the result is expressed by a number. The simplest example for this would be, length measurement using a meter scale. Here we compare the bar’s length(unknown quantity/ measure and) with a scale (Standard/predefined one). We say that the bar measures so many mms, cms or inches in length. • Direct comparison methods are quite common for measurement of physical quantities like length, mass, etc. • It is easy and quick. Drawbacks of Direct comparison methods • The main drawback of this method is, the method is not always accurate and reliable. • Also, human senses are not equipped to make direct comparison of all quantities with equal facility all the times. • Also, measurement by direct methods are not always possible, feasible and practicable. Example: Measurement of temperature, Measurement of weight. • One can experience or feel the hotness or coldness of a body with respect to a particular environment. • But may not be able to exactly predict or say the temperature. • Further , these measurements in most cases involve human factors. • Hence this method in general is not preferred and employed for very accurate measurements. Indirect comparison • • • • • • • • Most of the measurement systems use indirect method of measurement. In this method a chain of devices which is together called as measuring system is employed. The chain of devices transform the sensed signal into a more convenient form & indicate this transformed signal either on an indicator or a recorder or fed to a controller. i.e. it makes use of a transducing device/element which convert the basic form of input into an analogous form, which it then processes and presents as a known function of input. For example, to measure strain in a machine member, a component senses the strain, another component transforms the sensed signal into an electrical quantity which is then processed suitably before being fed to a meter or recorder. Further, human senses are not equipped to detect quantities like pressure, force or strain. But can feel or sense and cannot predict the exact magnitude of such quantities. Hence, we require a system that detects/sense, converts and finally presents the output in the form of a displacement of a pointer over a scale a , a change in resistance or raise in liquid level with respect to a graduated stem.