Syllabus: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III Year B.Tech. EEE -II Sem L 4 T/ /P/D C -/-/4 MICROPROCESSORS AND INTERFACING DEVICES UNIT – I 8086 MICROPROCESSOR: Introduction to 8085 microprocessor, 8086 architecture- Functional Diagram, Register Organization, Memory segmentation, Memory addresses, physical memory organization, Signal descriptions of 8086common function signals, Minimum and Maximum mode signals, Read Write cycles, Timing diagrams, Interrupt structure of 8086. UNIT – II ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING OF 8086: Instruction formats, addressing modes, instruction set, assembler directives, macros, Simple programs involving logical, branch and call instructions, Sorting, evaluating arithmetic expressions, string manipulations. UNIT – III PERIPHERAL INTERFACING WITH 8086 MICROPROCESSOR: 8255 PPI, Keyboard, display controllers, Stepper motor, A/D & D/A Converter Interfacing with 8086 microprocessor. Static and Dynamic memories, Vector interrupt table, Interrupt service routine, Introduction to DOS & BIOS interrupts, Programmable Interrupt Controller 8259, DMA controller 8257 Interfacing with 8086 microprocessor. UNIT – IV COMMUNICATION INTERFACE: Serial communication standards, serial data transfer schemes, 8251 USART architecture and Interfacing, RS-232, IEEE-488, prototyping and trouble shooting. UNIT – V INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLERS: Overview of 8051 microcontroller, Architecture, I/O ports and Memory organization, addressing modes and instruction set of 8051, Simple programs.
UNIT-I 8086 ARCHITECTURE Introduction to processor: A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drives a computer. The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor. The processor (CPU, for Central Processing Unit) is the computer's brain. It allows the processing of numeric data, meaning information entered in binary form, and the execution of instructions stored in memory. Evolution of Microprocessor: A microprocessor is used as the CPU in a microcomputer. There are now many different microprocessors available. Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single- chip devices. Microprocessor is a backbone of computer system. which is called CPU Microprocessor speed depends on the processing speed depends on DATA BUS WIDTH. A common way of categorizing microprocessors is by the no. of bits that their ALU can Work with at a time The address bus is unidirectional because the address information is always given by the Micro Processor to address a memory location of an input / output devices. The data bus is Bi-directional because the same bus is used for transfer of data between Micro Processor and memory or input / output devices in both the direction. It has limitations on the size of data. Most Microprocessor does not support floating-point operations. Microprocessor contain ROM chip because it contain instructions to execute data. What is the primary & secondary storage device? - In primary storage device the Storage capacity is limited. It has a volatile memory. In secondary storage device the storage capacity is larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. a) Primary devices are: RAM (Read / Write memory, High Speed, Volatile Memory) / ROM (Read only memory, Low Speed, Non Voliate Memory) b) Secondary devices are: Floppy disc / Hard disk Compiler: Compiler is used to translate the high-level language program into machine code at a time. It doesn’t require special instruction to store in a memory, it stores automatically. The Execution time is less compared to Interpreter. 1.4-bit Microprocessor: The first microprocessor (Intel 4004) was invented in 1971. It was a 4-bit calculation device with a speed of 108 kHz. Since then, microprocessor power has grown exponentially. So
what exactly are these little pieces of silicone that run our computers(" Common Operating Machine Particularly Used For Trade Education And Research ") It has 3200 PMOS transistors. It is a 4-bit device used in calculator. 2.8-Bit microprocessor: In 1972, Intel came out with the 8008 which is 8-bit. In 1974, Intel announced the 8080 followed by 8085 is a 8-bit processor Because 8085 processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Review). Similarly 8086 processor has 16 bit ALU. This had a larger instruction set then 8080. used NMOS transistors, so it operated much faster than the 8008. The 8080 is referred to as a “Second generation Microprocessor” 3. Limitations of 8 Bit microprocessor: Low speed of execution Low memory addressing capability Limited number of general purpose registers Less power full instruction set 4. Examples for 4/ 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessors: 4-Bit processor – 4004/4040 8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486 5. What are 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor? The processor made of PMOS technology is called 1st generation processor, and it is made up of 4 bits The processor made of NMOS technology is called 2nd generation processor, and it is made up of 8 bits The processor made of CMOS technology is called 3rd generation processor, and it is made up of 16 bits The processor made of HCMOS technology is called 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 32 bits (HCMOS : High-density n- type Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon field effect transistor) Block diagram of microprocessor:
The Central Processing Unit (CPU): This device coordinates all operations of a micro computer. It fetches programs stored in ROM‟s or RAMs and executes the instructions depending one a specific Instructions set, which is characteristic of each type of CPU, and which is recognized by the CPU. The Random Access Memory (RAM): Temporary or trail programs are written. Besides the ROM area, every computer has some memory space for temporary storage of data as well as for programs under development. These memory devices are RAMs or Read – write memory. The contents of it are not permanent and are altered when power is turned off. So the RAM memory is considered to be volatile memory. The Read Only Memory (ROM): Permanent programs are stored. The permanent memory device/area is called ROM, because whatever be the memory contents of ROMs, they cannot be over written with some other information. For a blank ROM, the manufacturer supplies the device without any inf. In it, information can be entered electrically into the memory space. This is called burning a ROM or PROM. Data Lines/Data Bus: The number of data lines, like add. Lines vary with the specific CPU .The set of data lines is database like the address bus unlike add. Bus, the data bus is bidirectional because while the information on the address Bus always flows out of the CPU; the data can flow both out of the CPU as well as into the CPU. Control lines/ control Bus: The no. of control lines also depends on the specific CPU one is using. Ex: Read; Write lines are examples of control lines Clock: The clock is a symmetrical square wave signal that drives the CPU Instructions: An instruction is an elementary operation that the processor can accomplish. Instructions are stored in the main memory, waiting to be processed by the processor. An instruction has two fields: Operation code, which represents the action that the processor must execute; Operand code, which defines the parameters of the action. The operand code depends on the operation. It can be data or a memory address Introduction to 8085 Microprocessor: The Salient Features of 8085 Microprocessor: 8085 is an 8 bit microprocessor, manufactured with N-MOS technology. It has 16-bit address bus and hence can address up to 216 = 65536 bytes (64KB) memory locations through A0-A15. The first 8 lines of address bus and 8 lines of data bus are multiplexed AD0 - AD7. Data bus is a group of 8 lines D0 - D7. It supports external interrupt request.8085 consists of 16 bit program counter (PC) and stack pointer (SP). Six 8-bit general purpose register arranged in pairs: BC, DE, HL. It requires a signal +5V power supply and can operate at 3 MHz, 5 MHz and 6 MHz Serial in/Serial out Port. It is enclosed with 40 pins DIP (Dual in line package).