MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Power Plant Engineering Lecture Notes LECTURE NOTES
POWER PLANT ENGINEERING LTPC 3003 OBJECTIVE: To understand the various components , operations and applications of different types of power plants UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO POWER PLANTS AND BOILERS Layout of Steam , Hydel , Diesel , MHD, Nuclear and Gas turbine Power Plants Combined Power cycles – comparison and selection , Load duration Curves Steam boilers and cycles – High pressure and Super Critical Boilers – Fluidised Bed Boilers UNIT II STEAM POWER PLANT Fuel and ash handling ,Combustion Equipment for burning coal, Mechanical Stokers. Pulveriser, Electrostatic Precipitator, Draught- Different Types, Surface condenser types, cooling Towers 9 9 UNIT III NUCLEAR AND HYDEL POWER PLANTS 9 Nuclear Energy-Fission , Fusion Reaction, Types of Reactors, Pressurized water reactor ,Boiling water reactor, Waste disposal and safety Hydel Power plant- Essential elements, Selection of turbines, governing of Turbines- Micro hydel developments UNIT IV DIESEL AND GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT 9 Types of diesel plants, components , Selection of Engine type, applications-Gas turbine power plant- Fuels- Gas turbine material – open and closed cycles- reheating – Regeneration and intercooling – combines cycle UNIT V OTHER POWER PLANTS AND ECONOMICS OF POWER PLANTS Geo thermal- OTEC- tidel- Pumped storage –Solar central receiver system Cost of electric Energy- Fixed and operating costs-Energy rates- Types tariffs- Economics of load sharing, comparison of various power plants. TOTAL: 45 PERIODS TEXT BOOKS: 1. Arora S.C and Domkundwar S, “A Course in Power Plant Engineering”, Dhanpat Rai, 2001 2. Nag P.K,”Power Plant Engineering”. Third edition Tata McGraw- Hill ,2007 REFERENCES: 1. EI-Wakil M.M, Power “Plant Technology,” Tata McGraw-Hill 1984 2. K.K.Ramalingam, “Power Plant Engineering “, Scitech Publications, 2002 3. G.R, Nagpal, “Power Plant Engineering”, Khanna Publishers 1998 4. G.D.Rai, “Introduction to Power Plant technology” Khanna Publishers, 1995 9
UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO POWER PLANTS AND BOILERS STEAM POWER PLANT: A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity. Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large proportion of CO2 is produced by the worlds fossil fired thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread.
The four main circuits one would come across in any thermal power plant layout are -Coal andAshCircuit -AirandGasCircuit - Feed Water and Steam Circuit - Cooling Water Circuit Coal and Ash Circuit Coal and Ash circuit in a thermal power plant layout mainly takes care of feeding the boiler with coal from the storage for combustion. The ash that is generated during combustion is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to the ash storage by scrap conveyors. The combustion in the Coal and Ash circuit is controlled by regulating the speed and the quality of coal entering the grate and the damper openings. Air and Gas Circuit Air from the atmosphere is directed into the furnace through the air preheated by the action of a forced draught fan or induced draught fan. The dust from the air is removed before it enters the combustion chamber of the thermal power plant layout. The exhaust gases from the combustion heat the air, which goes through a heat exchanger and is finally let off into the environment. Feed Water and Steam Circuit The steam produced in the boiler is supplied to the turbines to generate power. The steam that is expelled by the prime mover in the thermal power plant layout is then condensed in a condenser for re-use in the boiler. The condensed water is forced through a pump into the feed water heaters where it is heated using the steam from different points in the turbine. To make up for the lost steam and water while passing through the various components of the thermal power plant layout, feed water is supplied through external sources. Feed water is purified in a purifying plant to reduce the dissolve salts that could scale the boiler tubes. Cooling Water Circuit The quantity of cooling water required to cool the steam in a thermal power plant layout is significantly high and hence it is supplied from a natural water source like a lake or a river. After