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Note for Principles of Programming Languages - ppl By JNTU Heroes

  • Principles of Programming Languages - ppl
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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G. NARAYANAMMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE (For Women) Autonomous DEPARTMENT OF IT Principles of Programming Language UNIT-I Preliminaries Topics 1. Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages 2. Programming Domains 3. Language Evaluation Criteria 4. Influences on Language Design 5. Language Categories 6. Language Design Trade-Offs 7. Implementation Methods 8. Programming Environments ` Background  ―Frankly, we didn‘t have the vaguest idea how the thing [FORTRAN language and compiler] would work out in detail. …We struck out simply to optimize the object program, the running time, because most people at that time believed you couldn‘t do that kind of thing. They believed that machined-coded programs would be so inefficient that it would be impractical for many applications.‖ -John Backus  Unexpected successes are common – the browser is another example of an unexpected success 1.1 Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages      Increased ability to express ideas Improved background for choosing appropriate languages Increased ability to learn new languages Better understanding of significance of implementation Overall advancement of computing 1.2 Programming Domains • – – • – – • – – • – Scientific applications Large number of floating point computations Fortran Business applications Produce reports, use decimal numbers and characters COBOL Artificial intelligence Symbols rather than numbers manipulated LISP Systems programming Need efficiency because of continuous use

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G. NARAYANAMMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE (For Women) DEPARTMENT OF IT Principles of Programming Language – C • Web Software – Eclectic collection of languages: markup (e.g., XHTML), scripting (e.g., PHP), general-purpose (e.g., Java) 1.3 Language Evaluation Criteria • Readability: the ease with which programs can be read and understood • Writability: the ease with which a language can be used to create programs • Reliability: conformance to specifications (i.e., performs to its specifications) • Cost: the ultimate total cost Evaluation Criteria: Readability • Overall simplicity – A manageable set of features and constructs – Few feature multiplicity (means of doing the same operation) – Minimal operator overloading • Orthogonality – A relatively small set of primitive constructs can be combined in a relatively small number of ways Every possible combination is legal – • Control statements – The presence of well-known control structures (e.g., while statement) • Data types and structures – The presence of adequate facilities for defining data structures • Syntax considerations Identifier forms: flexible composition – – Special words and methods of forming compound statements – Form and meaning: self-descriptive constructs, meaningful keywords Evaluation Criteria: Writability • Simplicity and orthogonality – Few constructs, a small number of primitives, a small set of rules for combining them • Support for abstraction The ability to define and use complex structures or operations in ways – that allow details to be ignored • Expressivity – A set of relatively convenient ways of specifying operations – Example: the inclusion of for statement in many modern languages Evaluation Criteria: Reliability • Type checking – Testing for type errors • Exception handling – Intercept run-time errors and take corrective measures • Aliasing – Presence of two or more distinct referencing methods for the same memory location • Readability and writability – A language that does not support ―natural‖ ways of expressing an algorithm will necessarily use ―unnatural‖ approaches, and hence reduced reliability

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G. NARAYANAMMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE (For Women) DEPARTMENT OF IT Principles of Programming Language Evaluation Criteria: Cost • Training programmers to use language • Writing programs (closeness to particular applications) • Compiling programs • Executing programs • Language implementation system: availability of free compilers • Reliability: poor reliability leads to high costs • Maintaining programs Evaluation Criteria: Others • Portability – The ease with which programs can be moved from one implementation to another • Generality – The applicability to a wide range of applications • Well-definedness – The completeness and precision of the language‘s official definition 1.4 Influences on Language Design • Computer Architecture – Languages are developed around the prevalent computer architecture, known as the von Neumann architecture • Programming Methodologies – New software development methodologies (e.g., object-oriented software development) led to new programming paradigms and by extension, new programming languages Computer Architecture Influence • Well-known computer architecture: Von Neumann • Imperative languages, most dominant, because of von Neumann computers – Data and programs stored in memory – Memory is separate from CPU – Instructions and data are piped from memory to CPU – Basis for imperative languages • Variables model memory cells • Assignment statements model piping • Iteration is efficient The von Neumann Architecture

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G. NARAYANAMMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE (For Women) DEPARTMENT OF IT Principles of Programming Language Programming Methodologies Influences • 1950s and early 1960s: Simple applications; worry about machine efficiency • Late 1960s: People efficiency became important; readability, better control structures – structured programming – top-down design and step-wise refinement • Late 1970s: Process-oriented to data-oriented – data abstraction • Middle 1980s: Object-oriented programming – Data abstraction + inheritance + polymorphism 1.5 Language Categories • Imperative – Central features are variables, assignment statements, and iteration – Examples: C, Pascal • Functional – Main means of making computations is by applying functions to given parameters – Examples: LISP, Scheme • Logic – Rule-based (rules are specified in no particular order) – Example: Prolog • Object-oriented – Data abstraction, inheritance, late binding – Examples: Java, C++ • Markup – New; not a programming per se, but used to specify the layout of information in Web documents – Examples: XHTML, XML 1.6 Language Design Trade-Offs • Reliability vs. cost of execution – Conflicting criteria – Example: Java demands all references to array elements be checked for proper indexing but that leads to increased execution costs • Readability vs. writability – Another conflicting criteria – Example: APL provides many powerful operators (and a large number of new symbols), allowing complex computations to be written in a compact program but at the cost of poor readability • Writability (flexibility) vs. reliability – Another conflicting criteria – Example: C++ pointers are powerful and very flexible but not reliably used 1.7 Implementation Methods • Compilation

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