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# Note for Thermal Engineering 1 - TE-1 By JNTU Heroes

• Thermal Engineering 1 - TE-1
• Note
• Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
• 2 Topics
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Thermal engineering 1

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Thermal engineering •Thermodynamics – Basics • Energy and entropy • Temperature and thermometry • Variables: state properties, process functions • Equations of state, simple processes • Phase change – Applied: • Mixtures. Humid air (air conditioning) • Thermochemistry (combustion) • Heat engines (power generation) • Refrigeration (cold generation) • Thermal effects on materials and processes • Thermofluiddynamic flow 1D… •Heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers) 2

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Thermodynamics • Basic thermodynamics – The science of heat and temperature. Work. Energy. Thermal energy. – Energy and entropy. The isolated system. The traditional Principles – Generalisation (mass, momentum, energy): the science of assets (conservatives do not disappear) and spreads (conservatives tend to disperse) – Type of thermodynamic systems (system, frontier, and surroundings) • Isolated system: Dm=0, DE=0 • Closed system : Dm=0, DE0 • Open system : Dm0, DE0 – Type of thermodynamic variables • Intensive or extensive variables • State or process variables – Type of thermodynamic equations • Balance equations (conservation laws); e.g. DEclose-sys=W+Q • Equations of state (constitutive laws); e.g. pV=mRT • Equilibrium laws: S(U,V,ni)iso-sys(t) Smax e.g. dS/dU|V,ni=uniform… • (Kinetics is beyond classical thermodynamics; e.g. q  kT ) • Applied thermodynamics 3

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Thermodynamics (cont.) • Basic thermodynamics • Applied thermodynamics – – – – – – Energy and exergy analysis (minimum expense and maximum benefit) Non-reactive mixtures (properties of real mixtures, ideal mixture model…) Hygrometry (humid air applications: drying, humidification, air conditioning…) Phase transition in mixtures (liquid-vapour equilibrium, solutions…) Reactive mixtures. Thermochemistry. Combustion Heat engines • Gas cycles for reciprocating and rotodynamic engines • Vapour cycles (steam and organic fluid power plants) – Refrigeration, and heat pumps • Cryogenics (cryocoolers, cryostats, cryopreservation…) – Thermal analysis of materials (fixed points, calorimetry, dilatometry…) – Non-equilibrium thermodynamics (thermoelectricity, dissipative structures…) – Environmental thermodynamics (ocean and atmospheric processes…) 4