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Water Resources Engineering

by Jntu Heroes
Type: NoteInstitute: Jawaharlal nehru technological university anantapur college of engineering Offline Downloads: 1143Views: 6903Uploaded: 9 months agoAdd to Favourite

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Jntu Heroes
Jntu Heroes
CONTENTS Preface (vii) 1. INTRODUCTION 1—37 1.1 Irrigation ....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Impact of Irrigation on Human Environment ............................................................ 2 1.3 Water Resources of India ............................................................................................. 4 1.4 Need of Irrigation in India ........................................................................................... 9 1.5 Development of Irrigation in India ............................................................................ 10 1.6 Major and Medium Irrigation Schemes of India ...................................................... 12 1.7 Minor Irrigation .......................................................................................................... 15 1.8 Command Area Development .................................................................................... 15 1.9 Planning of Irrigation Projects ................................................................................... 17 1.10 Crops and Crop Seasons ............................................................................................. 28 Exercises ...................................................................................................................... 36 References .................................................................................................................... 36 2. HYDROLOGY 38—91 2.1 Hydrology .................................................................................................................... 38 2.2 Hydrologic Cycle ......................................................................................................... 38 2.3 Precipitation ................................................................................................................ 40 2.4 Abstraction from Precipitation .................................................................................. 56 2.5 Runoff .......................................................................................................................... 57 2.6 Stream Flow ................................................................................................................ 60 2.7 Hydrographs ................................................................................................................ 68 2.8 Floods ........................................................................................................................... 84 Exercises ...................................................................................................................... 90 References .................................................................................................................... 91 3. SOIL-WATER RELATIONS AND IRRIGATION METHODS 92—120 3.1 Soils .............................................................................................................................. 92 3.2 Physical Properties of Soil .......................................................................................... 93 3.3 Chemical Properties of Soil ........................................................................................ 95 3.4 Soil-Water Relationships ............................................................................................ 96 dharm d:\N-Ieng\TITLE.pm5 6
3.5 Root-Zone Soil Water .................................................................................................. 99 3.6 Infiltration ................................................................................................................. 102 3.7 Consumptive Use (or Evapotranspiration) ............................................................. 104 3.8 Irrigation Requirement ............................................................................................ 108 3.9 Frequency of Irrigation............................................................................................. 110 3.10 Methods of Irrigation ................................................................................................ 112 3.11 Quality of Irrigation Water ...................................................................................... 118 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 119 References .................................................................................................................. 120 4. GROUND WATER AND WELLS 121—164 4.1 Ground Water Resources .......................................................................................... 121 4.2 Well Irrigation ........................................................................................................... 122 4.3 Occurrence of Ground Water ................................................................................... 123 4.4 Flow of Water through Porous Media ...................................................................... 127 4.5 Well Hydraulics ......................................................................................................... 128 4.6 Ground Water Exploration ....................................................................................... 139 4.7 Pumping Tests (or Aquifer Tests) ............................................................................ 143 4.8 Design of Water Wells .............................................................................................. 145 4.9 Methods of Well Construction .................................................................................. 150 4.10 Well Completion ........................................................................................................ 156 4.11 Development of Wells ............................................................................................... 157 4.12 Pumping Equipment for Water Wells ..................................................................... 160 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 163 References .................................................................................................................. 164 5. CANAL IRRIGATION 165—225 5.1 Canals ........................................................................................................................ 165 5.2 Command Areas ........................................................................................................ 167 5.3 Planning of an Irrigation Canal System ................................................................. 167 5.4 Alignment of Irrigation Canals ................................................................................ 169 5.5 Curves in Canals ....................................................................................................... 172 5.6 Duty of Water ............................................................................................................ 172 5.7 Canal Losses .............................................................................................................. 173 5.8 Estimation of Design Discharge of a Canal ............................................................ 174 5.9 Canal Outlets ............................................................................................................ 175 5.10 Canal Regulation ...................................................................................................... 187 5.11 Delivery of Water to Farms ...................................................................................... 188 5.12 Flow Measurement ................................................................................................... 192 5.13 Assessment of Charges of Irrigation Water ............................................................ 207 dharm d:\N-Ieng\TITLE.pm5 7
5.14 Waterlogging ............................................................................................................. 208 5.15 Drainage of Irrigated Lands ..................................................................................... 219 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 224 References .................................................................................................................. 224 6. MANAGEMENT OF CANAL IRRIGATION IN INDIA 226—251 6.1 Need for Canal Irrigation Management .................................................................. 226 6.2 Inadequacies of Canal Irrigation Management ...................................................... 229 6.3 Objectives and Criteria for Good Canal Irrigation Management .......................... 230 6.4 Methods for Improving Canal Irrigation Management.......................................... 232 6.5 Operation and Maintenance of Canal Irrigation Systems ..................................... 242 6.6 Evaluation of Performance of Canal Irrigation Systems ....................................... 248 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 249 References .................................................................................................................. 250 7. HYDRAULICS OF ALLUVIAL CHANNELS 252—277 7.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 252 7.2 Incipient Motion of Sediment ................................................................................... 252 7.3 Regimes of Flow ........................................................................................................ 257 7.4 Resistance to Flow in Alluvial Channels ................................................................. 262 7.5 Transport of Sediment .............................................................................................. 269 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 275 References .................................................................................................................. 276 8. DESIGN OF STABLE CHANNELS 278—316 8.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 278 8.2 Rigid Boundary Channels carrying Clear Water .................................................... 278 8.3 Rigid Boundary Channels carrying Sediment-laden Water .................................. 284 8.4 Alluvial Channels Carrying Clear Water ................................................................ 285 8.5 Alluvial Channels Carrying Sediment-laden Water .............................................. 289 8.6 Procedure for Design of Irrigation Channels .......................................................... 303 8.7 Borrow Pits, Spoil Banks, and Land Width for Irrigation Channel ...................... 311 8.8 Sediment Distribution in an Alluvial Channel ....................................................... 314 8.9 Silting and Berming of Channels ............................................................................. 315 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 316 References .................................................................................................................. 316 9. SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGN OF CANAL STRUCTURES 317—351 9.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 317 9.2 Hydraulic Jump ........................................................................................................ 317 9.3 Seepage Forces .......................................................................................................... 334 dharm d:\N-Ieng\TITLE.pm5 8
9.4 Uplift Force on the Floor of Canal Structure .......................................................... 348 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 349 References .................................................................................................................. 351 10. CANAL REGULATION STRUCTURES 352—377 10.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 352 10.2 Canal Fall .................................................................................................................. 352 10.3 Historical Development of Falls ............................................................................... 353 10.4 Types of Canal Falls ................................................................................................. 354 10.5 Cistern Element ........................................................................................................ 355 10.6 Roughening Measures for Energy Dissipation ....................................................... 358 10.7 Trapezoidal Notch Fall ............................................................................................. 361 10.8 Sarda Fall .................................................................................................................. 362 10.9 Glacis Fall .................................................................................................................. 367 10.10 Distributary Head Regulator ................................................................................... 372 10.11 Cross Regulator ......................................................................................................... 373 10.12 Design Criteria for Distributary Head Regulator and Cross Regulator ............... 373 10.13 Control of Sediment Entry into an Offtaking Channel .......................................... 374 10.14 Canal Escapes ........................................................................................................... 376 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 377 References .................................................................................................................. 377 11. CROSS-DRAINAGE STRUCTURES 378—405 11.1 Need of Cross-Drainage Structures ......................................................................... 378 11.2 Types of Cross-Drainage Structures ........................................................................ 378 11.3 Selection of Suitable Types of Cross-Drainage Structure ...................................... 384 11.4 Design of Cross-Drainage Structures ...................................................................... 386 11.5 Waterway and Headway of the Stream ................................................................... 388 11.6 Head Loss through Cross-Drainage Structures ...................................................... 389 11.7 Design of Transitions for Canal Waterway ............................................................. 390 11.8 Uplift Pressure on Trough ........................................................................................ 396 11.9 Uplift Pressure on Culvert Floor ............................................................................. 397 11.10 Miscellaneous Details ............................................................................................... 398 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 404 References .................................................................................................................. 405 12. RIVERS AND RIVER TRAINING METHODS 406—434 12.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 406 12.2 Classification of Rivers ............................................................................................. 406 12.3 Behaviour of Rivers .................................................................................................. 410 12.4 River Training ........................................................................................................... 416 dharm d:\N-Ieng\TITLE.pm5 9

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