LECTURE NOTES ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS
SYLLABUS UNIT-I The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals: Introduction, Frequency Reuse, Channel Assignment Strategies, Handoff Strategies- Prioritizing Handoffs, Practical Handoff Considerations, Interference and system capacity — Co channel Interference and system capacity, Channel planning for Wireless Systems, Adjacent Channel interference , Power Control for Reducing interference, Trunking and Grade of Service, Improving Coverage & Capacity in Cellular Systems- Cell Splitting, Sectoring. UNIT—II Mobile Radio Propagation: Large-Scale Path Loss: Introduction to Radio Wave Propagation, Free Space Propagation Model, Relating Power to Electric Field, The Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms, Reflection- Reflection from Dielectrics, Brewster Angle, Reflection from prefect conductors, Ground Reflection (Two-Ray) Model, Diffraction-Fresnel Zone Geometry, Knife-edge Diffraction Model, Multiple knife-edge Diffraction, Scattering, Outdoor Propagation Models- Longley-Ryce Model, Okumura Model, Hata Model, PCS Extension to Hata Model, Walfisch and Bertoni Model, Wideband PCS Microcell Model, lndoor Propagation Models-Partition losses (Same Floor), Partition losses between Floors, Log-distance path loss model, Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint Model, Attenuation Factor Model, Signal penetration into buildings, Ray Tracing and Site Specific Modeling. . UNIT —III Mobile Radio Propagation: Small —Scale Fading and Multipath: Small Scale Multipath propagationFactors influencing small scale fading, Doppler shift, Impulse Response Model of a multipath channelRelationship between Bandwidth and Received power, Small-Scale Multipath Measurements-Direct RF Pulse System, Spread Spectrum Sliding Correlator Channel Sounding, Frequency Domain Channels Sounding, Parameters of Mobile Multipath Channels-Time Dispersion Parameters, Coherence Bandwidth, Doppler Spread and Coherence Time, Types of Small-Scale Fading-Fading effects Due to Multipath Time Delay Spread, Flat fading, Frequency selective fading, Fading effects Due to Doppler Spread-Fast fading, slow fading, Statistical Models for multipath Fading Channels-Clarke’s model for flat fading, spectral shape due to Doppler spread in Clarke’s model, Simulation of Clarke and Gans Fading Model, Level crossing and fading statistics, Two-ray Rayleigh Fading Model. UNIT -IV Equalization and Diversity: Introduction, Fundamentals of Equalization, Training A Generic Adaptive Equalizer, Equalizers in a communication Receiver, Linear Equalizers, Non-linear Equalization-Decision Feedback Equalization (DFE), Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE) Equalizer, Algorithms for adaptive equalization-Zero Forcing Algorithm, Least Mean Square Algorithm, Recursive least squares algorithm. Diversity Techniques-Derivation of selection Diversity improvement, Derivation of Maximal Ratio Combining improvement, Practical Space Diversity Consideration-Selection Diversity, Feedback or Scanning Diversity, Maximal Ratio Combining, Equal Gain Combining, Polarization Diversity, Frequency Diversity, Time Diversity, RAKE Receiver. UNIT -V Wireless Networks: Introduction to wireless Networks, Advantages and disadvantages of Wireless Local Area Networks, WLAN Topologies, WLAN Standard IEEE 802.11 ,IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control, Comparision of IEEE 802.11 a,b,g and n standards, IEEE 802.16 and its enhancements, Wireless PANs, Hiper Lan, WLL.
TEXT BOOKS 1. Wireless Communications, Principles, Practice — Theodore, S.Rappaport, 2nd Ed., 2002, PHI. 2. Wireless Communications-Andrea Goldsmith, 2005 Cambridge University Press. 3. Mobile Cellular Communication — Gottapu Sasibhushana Rao, Pearson Education, 2012. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Principles of Wireless Networks — Kaveh Pah Laven and P. Krishna Murthy, 2002, PE 2. Wireless Digital Communications — Kamilo Feher, 1999, PHI. 3. Wireless Communication and Networking — William Stallings, 2003,PHI. 4. Wireless Communication — Upen Dalal, Oxford Univ. Press 5. Wireless Communications and Networking — Vijay K. Gary, Elsevier.
The Cellular Engineering Fundamentals Introduction In Chapter 1, we have seen that the technique of substituting a single high power transmitter by several low power transmitters to support many users is the backbone of the cellular concept. In practice, the following four parameters are most important while considering the cellular issues: system capacity, quality of service, spectrum efficiency and power management. Starting from the basic notion of a cell, we would deal with these parameters in the context of cellular engineering in this chapter. What is a Cell? The power of the radio signals transmitted by the BS decay as the signals travel away from it. A minimum amount of signal strength (let us say, x dB) is needed in order to be detected by the MS or mobile sets which may the hand-held personal units or those installed in the vehicles. The region over which the signal strength lies above this threshold value x dB is known as the coverage area of a BS and it must be a circular region, considering the BS to be isotropic radiator. Such a circle, which gives this actual radio coverage, is called the foot print of a cell (in reality, it is amorphous). It might so happen that either there may be an overlap between any two such side by side circles or there might be a gap between the 4