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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
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Topic:

LECTURE NOTES
ON
COMPUTER METHODS IN
POWER SYSTEMS
B.Tech III-II semester

CONTENTS (CHAPTER-WISE)
Chapter 1 LINEAR GRAPH THEORY
PART A: INCIDENCE AND NETWORK MATRICES
• Definitions of important terms
• Incidence matrices: Element node incidence matrix and Bus
incidence matrix
• Primitive networks and primitive network matrices
• Performance of primitive networks
• Frames of reference
• Singular transformation analysis
• Formation of bus admittance matrix by rule of inspection and
singular transformation
• Examples
PART B: ZBUS BUILDING ALGORITHMS
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Partial networks
Addition of Branch and addition of Link
Algorithms for formation of ZBUS for single phase systems
Special cases without and with mutually coupled elements
Deletion of an element, changing the impedance value of an
element, etc.
• Examples
Chapter 2
LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL
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Turbine speed governing system
Modeling and block diagram representation of single area
Steady state and dynamic response
Area control error
Two area load frequency control
Examples
2

Chapter 3
LOAD FLOW STUDIES
PART A: REVIEW OF SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS
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Solution of linear, nonlinear and differential equations
Importance of iterative methods
Flow diagrams for the iterative methods
Comparison of methods
Examples
PART B: BASIC LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
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Classification of buses
Importance of slack bus
Static load flow equations
Gauss Siedel Method: for systems with PQ, PV and Constrained
PV buses
Limitations of Gauss Siedel method
Importance of acceleration factor
Newton Raphson method in polar coordinates
Concept of Jacobian matrix
Comparison of load flow methods
Examples
PART C: ADVANCED LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
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Decoupled load flow
Fast decoupled load flow analysis
Representation of TCUL transformers
Examples
Chapter 4
ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEMS
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Optimal distribution of loads within a plant
Langrangian multipliers
Transmission loss as a function of plant generation
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Determination of loss coefficients
Automatic economic load dispatch
Examples
Chapter 5
TRANSIENT STABILITY STUDIES
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Basic Stability terms
Swing Equation & Swing Curve
Numerical solution of differential equations
Modified Euler’s method
Runge-Kutta IV order method
Milne’s predictor corrector method
Representation of synchronous machine, loads, etc. for TS studies
Network performance equations
Solution techniques and flow charts
Examples
EXPECTED PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER
One question each on chapter 2 and 4, and Two questions each on chapters 1, 3 and 5.
Note: Five questions out of 8 are to be answered in full.
TEXTS/ REFERENCES:
1. Stagg and El Abiad, Computer methods in power system analysis, MH.
2. MA Pai, Computer techniques in power Systems, TMH..
3. K Umarao, Computer Techniques and Models in Power Systems, IK
International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
4. RN Dhar, Computer techniques in power system operation and control.
PREREQUISITE SUBJECTS:
1. Power System Analysis
2. Synchronous Machines
3. Numerical analysis
4

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