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Operating Systems

by Amity KumarAmity Kumar
Type: NoteInstitute: Amity University Specialization: Computer Science EngineeringOffline Downloads: 56Views: 3368Uploaded: 10 months ago

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Amity Kumar
Amity Kumar
Lecture Notes On OPERATING SYSTEMS
Operating Systems CONTENT 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 5 2 History of Operating Systems ................................................................................................................ 6 3 A history of personal computers ............................................................................................................ 8 4 Configuration........................................................................................................................................ 10 5 Display.................................................................................................................................................. 11 6 Motherboard ......................................................................................................................................... 11 7 Central processing unit ......................................................................................................................... 11 8 Primary storage..................................................................................................................................... 12 8.1 9 Technology and history ................................................................................................................ 13 Expansion card ..................................................................................................................................... 13 9.1 History of the expansion card ....................................................................................................... 13 10 Power supply .................................................................................................................................... 14 11 Computer power supply ................................................................................................................... 15 11.1 Domestic mains adaptors.............................................................................................................. 16 11.2 Linear power supply ..................................................................................................................... 16 11.3 Switched-mode power supply ...................................................................................................... 16 12 Optical disc ....................................................................................................................................... 17 12.1 First-generation optical discs........................................................................................................ 17 12.2 Second-generation optical discs ................................................................................................... 17 12.3 Third-generation optical discs ...................................................................................................... 18 13 Secondary storage............................................................................................................................. 18 14 Computer keyboard .......................................................................................................................... 18 15 Mouse (computing) .......................................................................................................................... 19 16 Main memory ................................................................................................................................... 20 17 Hard disk drive ................................................................................................................................. 20 18 Graphics - Video card....................................................................................................................... 20 19 Disk operating system ...................................................................................................................... 21 19.1 History of DOS ............................................................................................................................. 21 20 Examples of disk operating systems that were extensions to the OS ............................................... 22 21 Examples of Disk Operating Systems that were the OS itself ......................................................... 22 22 Input/Output System......................................................................................................................... 23 23 Command Syntax ............................................................................................................................. 25 23.1 Checking the Disk ........................................................................................................................ 28 23.2 Backing Up a Floppy Disk ........................................................................................................... 28 Lecture Notes on Operating Systems 2
Operating Systems 23.3 Erasing Files ................................................................................................................................. 29 23.4 Renaming Files ............................................................................................................................. 29 23.5 Copying Files ............................................................................................................................... 29 24 Subdirectory Introduction................................................................................................................. 31 25 Subdirectory Review ........................................................................................................................ 34 26 BATCH FILES ................................................................................................................................. 34 26.1 27 AUTOEXEC.BAT ....................................................................................................................... 41 Data structure in disk. ....................................................................................................................... 45 27.1 Disk Structure and Partitions ........................................................................................................ 45 27.2 Disk tracks, cylinders, and sectors ............................................................................................... 45 27.3 Cylinder group .............................................................................................................................. 46 27.4 Physical disk structure .................................................................................................................. 46 28 File systems ...................................................................................................................................... 47 29 FAT12 .............................................................................................................................................. 51 30 Initial FAT16 .................................................................................................................................... 51 30.1 Final FAT16 ................................................................................................................................. 52 30.2 Long File Names (VFAT, LFNs) ................................................................................................. 52 30.3 FAT32 .......................................................................................................................................... 52 30.4 FAT and Alternate Data Streams ................................................................................................. 53 30.5 Main disk structures ..................................................................................................................... 54 31 File Allocation Table ........................................................................................................................ 56 32 Floppy disk ....................................................................................................................................... 57 33 AUTOEXEC.BAT ........................................................................................................................... 58 34 CONFIG.SYS ................................................................................................................................... 58 34.1 35 Example CONFIG.SYS file for DOS .......................................................................................... 59 Computer software ........................................................................................................................... 59 35.1 Relationship to hardware .............................................................................................................. 60 35.2 Relationship to data ...................................................................................................................... 60 36 System, programming and application software .............................................................................. 60 36.1 Software program and library....................................................................................................... 61 37 Three layers of software ................................................................................................................... 61 38 Software operation ........................................................................................................................... 62 39 Memory control drivers .................................................................................................................... 62 40 Cash memory.................................................................................................................................... 63 41 UNIX operation system. Main features and commands. UNIX / Linux .......................................... 65 Lecture Notes on Operating Systems 3
Operating Systems 41.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 65 41.2 History .......................................................................................................................................... 66 41.2.1 1970s .................................................................................................................................... 66 41.2.2 1980s .................................................................................................................................... 67 41.2.3 1990s .................................................................................................................................... 68 41.2.4 2000 to present ..................................................................................................................... 69 41.3 Standards ...................................................................................................................................... 69 41.4 Components .................................................................................................................................. 70 41.5 Impact ........................................................................................................................................... 71 41.6 Free Unix-like operating systems ................................................................................................. 73 41.7 Branding ....................................................................................................................................... 74 41.8 Common Unix commands ............................................................................................................ 74 42 OS/2 OPERATING SYSTEM ......................................................................................................... 75 43 References ........................................................................................................................................ 76 Lecture Notes on Operating Systems 4

Lecture Notes