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Note for Software Engineering - SE By Amity Kumar

  • Software Engineering - SE
  • Note
  • Amity University - AMITY
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • 11 Topics
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TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT-1 Overview 4-5 Socio-Technical systems 5-8 UNIT-2 Critical Systems, Software Processes 9 - 15 UNIT-3 Requirements 16 - 20 Requirements Engineering Processes 20 - 21 UNIT – 4 System models, Project Management 22 - 27 UNIT – 5 Software Design, Object-Oriented design 28 – 49 UNIT-6 Development, Software Evolution 50 - 70 UNIT-7 Verification and Validation , Software testing 71 - 93 UNIT-8 Management, Software Cost Estimation 94 - 114 Page 3

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UNIT -1 OVERVIEW The economies of ALL developed nations are dependent on software. More and more systems are software controlled. Software engineering is concerned with theories, methods and tools for professional software development. FAQs About software engineering: What is software? Software is set of Computer programs associated with documentation & configuration data that is needed to make these programs operate correctly. A software system consists of a number of programs, configuration files (used to set up programs), system documentation (describes the structure of the system) and user documentation (explains how to use system). Software products may be developed for a particular customer or may be developed for a general market. Software products may be • Generic - developed to be sold to a range of different customers • Bespoke (custom) - developed for a single customer according to their specification What is software engineering?  Software engineering is an engineering discipline which is concerned with all aspects of software production.  Software engineers should adopt a systematic and organized approach to their work and use appropriate tools and techniques depending on the problem to be solved, the development constraints and the resources available. What is the difference between software engineering and computer science?  Computer science is concerned with theory and fundamentals; software engineering is concerned with the practicalities of developing and delivering useful software  Computer science theories are currently insufficient to act as a complete underpinning for software engineering What is the difference between software engineering and system engineering?  System engineering is concerned with all aspects of computer-based systems development including hardware, software and process engineering. Software engineering is part of this process  System engineers are involved in system specification, architectural design, integration and deployment What is a software process? A set of activities whose goal is the development or evolution of software Generic activities in all software processes are: • Specification - what the system should do and its development constraints • Development - production of the software system Page 4

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• Validation - checking that the software is what the customer wants • Evolution - changing the software in response to changing demands What is a software process model? A simplified representation of a software process, presented from a specific perspective Examples of process perspectives are • Workflow perspective - sequence of activities • Data-flow perspective - information flow • Role/action perspective - who does what Generic process models • Waterfall • Evolutionary development • Formal transformation • Integration from reusable components Socio-Technical Systems: • A system is a purposeful collection of inter-related components working together towards some common objective. • A system may include software, mechanical, electrical and electronic hardware and be operated by people. • System components are dependent on other system components The properties and behavior of system components are inextricably inter-mingled Problems of systems engineering • • • Large systems are usually designed to solve 'wicked' problems Systems engineering requires a great deal of co-ordination across disciplines • Almost infinite possibilities for design trade-offs across components • Mutual distrust and lack of understanding across engineering disciplines Systems must be designed to last many years in a changing environment Software and systems engineering The proportion of software in systems is increasing. Software-driven general purpose electronics is replacing special-purpose systems Problems of systems engineering are similar to problems of software engineering Software is seen as a problem in systems engineering. Many large system projects have been delayed because of software problems. Emergent properties • Properties of the system as a whole rather than properties that can be derived from the properties of components of a system Page 5

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• Emergent properties are a consequence of the relationships between system components. They can therefore only be assessed and measured once the components have been integrated into a system. Examples of emergent properties 1. The overall weight of the system • This is an example of an emergent property that can be computed from individual component properties. 2. The reliability of the system • This depends on the reliability of system components and the relationships between the components. 3. The usability of a system • This is a complex property which is not simply dependent on the system hardware and software but also depends on the system operators and the environment where it is used. Types of emergent property 1. Functional properties • These appear when all the parts of a system work together to achieve some objective. For example, a bicycle has the functional property of being a transportation device once it has been assembled from its components. 2. Non-functional emergent properties • Examples are reliability, performance, safety, and security. These relate to the behaviour of the system in its operational environment. They are often critical for computer-based systems as failure to achieve some minimal defined level in these properties may make the system unusable. Because of component inter-dependencies, faults can be propagated through the system System failures often occur because of unforeseen inter-relationships between Components It is probably impossible to anticipate all possible component relationships Software reliability measures may give a false picture of the system reliability System reliability engineering 1. Hardware reliability • What is the probability of a hardware component failing and how long does it take to repair that component? 2. Software reliability • How likely is it that a software component will produce an incorrect output. Software failure is usually distinct from hardware failure in that software does not wear out. 3. Operator reliability • How likely is it that the operator of a system will make an error? Influences on reliability Page 6

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