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# Note for Operations Research - OR By Amity Kumar

• Operations Research - OR
• Note
• Amity University - AMITY
• Computer Science Engineering
• 7 Topics
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OPERATIONS RESEARCH Part –A, Unit 1: Linear Programming 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 TERMINOLOGY The British/Europeans refer to "operational research", the Americans to "operations research" - but both are often shortened to just "OR" (which is the term we will use). Another term which is used for this field is "management science" ("MS"). The Americans sometimes combine the terms OR and MS together and say "OR/MS" or "ORMS". Yet other terms sometimes used are "industrial engineering"("IE"), "decision science" ("DS"), and “problem solving”. In recent years there has been a move towards a standardization upon a single term for the field, namely the term "OR". 1.2 THE METHODOLOGY OF OR When OR is used to solve a problem of an organization, the following seven step procedure should be followed: Step 1. Formulate the Problem: OR analyst first defines the organization's problem. Defining the problem includes specifying the organization's objectives and the parts of the organization (or system) that must be studied before the problem can be solved. Step 2. Observe the System: Next, the analyst collects data to estimate the values of parameters that affect the organization's problem. These estimates are used to develop (in Step 3) and evaluate (in Step 4) a mathematical model of the organization's problem. Step 3. Formulate a Mathematical Model of the Problem: The analyst, then, develops a mathematical model (in other words an idealized representation) of the problem. In this class, we describe many mathematical techniques that can be used to model systems. Step 4. Verify the Model and Use the Model for Prediction: The analyst now tries to determine if the mathematical model developed in Step 3 is an accurate representation of reality. To determine how well the model fits reality, one determines how valid the model is for the current situation. Step 5. Select a Suitable Alternative: Given a model and a set of alternatives, the analyst chooses the alternative (if there is one) that best meets the organization's objectives. Sometimes the set of alternatives is subject to certain restrictions and constraints. In many situations, the best alternative may be impossible or too costly to determine. Step 6. Present the Results and Conclusions of the Study: In this step, the analyst presents the model and the recommendations from Step 5 to the decision making individual or group. In some situations, one might present several alternatives and let the 1