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Note for ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EP By Mallikarjun Anna

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  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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UNIT-V 9. Semiconductor Physics: Fermi Level in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Calculation of Carrier Concentration in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors,Direct & Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors, Hall Effect. Formation of PN Junction, Open Circuit PN Junction, EnergyDiagram of PN Diode, Diode Equation , I-V Characteristics of PN Junction Diode, Solar cell, LED and Photo Diodes. Acoustics of Buildings & Acoustic Quieting:Reverberation and Time of Reverberation, Sabine's Formula for Reverberation Time,Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of a Material, Factors Affecting the Architectural Acoustics and their Remedies. 10.Nanotechnology: Origin of Nanotechnology, Nano Scale, Surface to Volume Ratio, QuantumConfinement, BottomupFabrication:Sol-gel,Top-down Fabrication:Chemical Vapour Deposition, Characterization byTEM. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Engineering Physics, K. Malik, A. K. Singh, Tata Mc Graw Hill Book Publishers. 2. Engineering Physics, V. Rajendran, Tata Mc Graw Hill Book Publishers. REFERENCES: 1. Fundamentals of Physics, David Halliday, Robert Resnick, Jearl Walker by John Wiley & Sons 2. Sears and Zemansky's University Physics (10th Edition) by Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman, T. R.Sandin, A. Lewis FordAddison-Wesley Publishers; 3. Applied Physics for Engineers – P. Madhusudana Rao (Academic Publishing company, 2013) 4. Solid State Physics – M. Armugam (Anuradha Publications). 5. Modern Physics – R. Murugeshan & K. Siva Prasath – S. Chand & Co. (for Statistical Mechanics). 6. A Text Book of Engg Physics– M. N. Avadhanulu & P.G.Khsirsagar– S.Chand & Co(foracoustics). 7. Modern Physics by K. Vijaya Kumar, S. Chandralingam: S. Chand & Co.Ltd 8. Nanotechnology – M.Ratner & D. Ratner (Pearson Ed.). 9. Introduction to Solid State Physics – C. Kittel (Wiley Eastern). 10. Solid State Physics – A.J. Dekker (Macmillan). 11. Applied Physics – Mani Naidu Pearson Education. 3|ENGINEERING PHYSICS

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CONTENTS UNIT-I Page No. Chapter-1: Crystallography-----------------------------------------------------------05-33 Chapter-2: X-ray Diffraction & Defects in Crystals ------------------------------34-50 UNIT- II Chapter-3: Principles of Quantum Mechanics -----------------------------------51-63 Chapter-4: Elements of Statistical Mechanics& Electron theory of Solids -------64-82 UNIT- III Chapter-5: Dielectric Properties -------------------------------------------------83-93 Chapter-6: Magnetic Properties & Superconducting Properties ----------------94-109 UNIT- IV Chapter-7: Optics ---------------------------------------------------------------------110-126 Chapter-8: Lasers & Fiber Optics ----------------------------------------------------127-151 UNIT- V Chapter-9: Semiconductor Physics,Acoustics of Buildings&Acoustic Quieting--152-186 Chapter-10: Nanotechnology --------------------------------------------------------187-200 *JNTUH Previous Mid Papers *Model Mid Papers (For the academic year 2013-14) *JNTUH Previous External Papers *Model External Papers (New pattern, for the academic year 2013-14)-------- 200-216 4|ENGINEERING PHYSICS

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UNIT-I Chapter-1: - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY Introduction:The branch of science which deals with the study of crystals and their properties by using x-ray, electron and neutron diffraction methods is called as crystallography.It is mainly used to determine the internal arrangement of atoms in crystals, bondings and their strength. Crystallography is essential for progress in the applied sciences and technology and developments in all materials areas, including metals, alloys, ceramics, glasses, and polymers, as well as drug design. It is equally vital for progress in fundamental physics and chemistry, mineralogy and geology, and computer science, and to understanding of the dynamics and processes of living systems. BONDING IN SOLIDS: Generally , in nature matter exists in three states, namely solid, liquid and gaseous state.There is also a fourth state called plasma state, which is a highly ionised gaseous state occurs at high temperatures (105 0C). The states of matter and their packing of atoms as shown in fig.1 and fig.2 respectively.Changes in states of matter take place when a certain amount of heat energy is applied to a substance, as shown in fig.3. Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 In solids the atoms are closely packed due to attractive and repulsive forces which exist between nucleus and electrons. Because of these attractive and repulsive forces, bonds are formed between the atoms. 1. What is a Bond. Explain types of bonds in solids; their formation and with the properties. (10M) Bonding or Bond:The electrostatic forces which hold the atoms (or) molecules of a substance together.The process of holding the atoms together is called as bonding. Based on bond energy and directionality of bonding, bonds are classified into two types. They are, 1. Primary (or) Interatomic bonding, 2. Secondary (or) Intermolecular bonding 5|ENGINEERING PHYSICS

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1. Primary (or) Interatomic bonding:The electrostatic forces which hold the atoms together to form a solid is called as Primary (or) Interatomic bonding.They have bond enrgy (E)ranges from 0.1ev to 10 ev and interatomic distance (r) ranges from 1A0 to 2A0. These are of three types, i. Ionic bonding ii. Covalent bonding iii. Metallic bonding 2. Secondary (or) Intermolecular bonding:The electrostatic forces which hold the molecules together to form a solid is called as Secondary (or) Intermolecular bonding.They have bond energy (E) ranges from 0.01 ev to 0.5 ev and interatomic distance (r) ranges from 2A0 to 5A0. These are of two types, i. Hydrogen bonding, ii. Vander Waal’s bonding Bond (or) Bonding bond energy, Primary bond 1. Ionic bond directionality (E: 0.1 to 10 ev; r:1 to 2A0) 2. Covalent bond Secondarybond (E: 0.01 to 0.5 ev; r: 2 to 5A0) 3.Metallic bond 4. Hydrogen bond 5. VanderWaal’s bond 1. Ionic Bonding:The bond formed between two atoms by the transfer of valence electrons from one atom to the other is called as ionic (or) electrovalent bonding. It is formed due to attractive force existing between a positive ion (cation) and a negative ion (anion), when they are brought into closer distance. It is also called as hetero polar bond. Ex: - NaCl Molecule. 23 11Na : Atomic number Z=11, Electronic Configuration= 1S2/ 2S2 2P6 / 3S1 Sodium atom has only one electron in outermost shell, so it always tries to loose that electron to become stable and get noble gas configuration of Ne. By loosing one electron Na becomes Na+. + Na + 1 33.5 : Atomic number Z=17, Electronic Configuration= 1S2/ 2S2 2P6 / 3S2 3P5 17 Cl Chlorine atom requires one electron to get noble gas configuration of Ar.By getting one electron Cl becomes Cl — and releases some energy called as electron affinity. Na + 5.1eV (Ionisation Energy) i.e., Cl + 1 Cl — + 3.6 eV (Electron Affinity) Now there exists an electrostatic force of attraction between Na+ and Cl — ions , which holds together to form a NaCl molecule. + This regular and periodic arrangement of Na and Cl — ions extend continuously throughout the space and form a NaCl crystal as shown below. Fig.d – Repitition of Na+& Cl—ions 6|ENGINEERING PHYSICS Fig.e - NaCl crystal

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