Unit I Fuels and Combustion: Characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, Laws of
combustion and reactions, Gravimetric and volumetric analysis, Air-fuel ratio, Exhaust gas
analysis, Orsat apparatus. Calorific values of fuel, Bomb calorimeter, Numericals.
Steam: Formation of steam at constant pressure, Variation in steam properties during phase
change, Steam tables and their uses, Enthalpy – entropy (Mollier) diagram, Carnot and Rankine
vapour cycles, Rankine cycle with reheat and regeneration, Numericals.
Unit II Steam Generators: Classification of steam boilers, Essentials of a good boiler,
Construction and operational details of Locomotive, Lancashire, Benson, Lamont, Loeffler and
Velox boilers, Boiler mountings and accessories.
Boiler Draught (Draft) and Performance: Natural (Chimney) draught, Maximum discharge
through a chimney, Artificial draught, Evaporative capacity and efficiency of boilers, Energy
balance in a boiler, Numericals.
Unit III Steam Nozzles: Steam flow through a nozzle, Critical pressure ratio (maximum
discharge condition) and its physical significance, Flow through actual nozzles, Supersaturated
expansion of steam, Numericals.
Steam Turbines: Working principle of impulse and reaction steam turbines. Vector diagrams
of velocities, Optimum operating conditions of turbines, Compounding of impulse turbines,
Losses in steam turbines, Performance analysis of steam turbines, Governing of steam
Unit IV Steam Engines : Construction and working of steam engines, Indicator diagrams,
Performance of steam engines, Governing of steam engines. Numericals.
Steam Condensers: Elements of a condensing plant, Types of condensers, Comparison of jet and
surface condensers. Condenser and vacuum efficiency, Cooling towers, Numericals.