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Steam and Power Generation

by Pankaj Khatak
Type: NoteInstitute: GURU JAMBHESWAR UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Specialization: Mechanical EngineeringDownloads: 76Views: 3122Uploaded: 6 months agoAdd to Favourite

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Steam and Power Generation by Pankaj Khatak

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Pankaj Khatak
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General Description of the course 1 Course Objectives and Outcomes 2 Syllabus of the Course 3 Unit 1 : Contents 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID, LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUELS 5 LAWS OF COMBUSTION AND REACTIONS 6 GRAVIMETRIC AND VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS 7 AIR-FUEL RATIO 9 EXHAUST GAS ANALYSIS 12 ORSAT APPARATUS 13 Calorific Value of Fuel 16 Bomb Calorimeter 17 Formation of steam at constant pressure 20 Steam tables and their uses 29 Mollier Diagram 33 Carnot and Rankine vapour cycles 35 Carnot Vapour Cycle1 37 RankineVapour Cycle 38 Rankine Cycle Modifications 39 Contents of Unit II 40 Steam Generators and classification 41 Essentials of a Good Boiler 43 Cochran Boiler 44 Babcock and Wilcox Boiler 45 Locomotive Boiler 46 Lancashire Boiler 47 Benson Boiler 48 Lamont Boiler 49 Loeffler Boiler 50 Velox Boiler 51 Boiler Mountings and Accessories 52 Safety Valve 53 Water level indicator and other mountings 54 Boiler Accessories 56 Boiler Draught 59 Height of Chimney 60 Maximum Discharge through a Chimney 62 Artificial Draught 63 Efficiency of Boilers 64 Energy Balance in Boilers 65 Unit III Contents 66 Steam Flow through Nozzles 67 Condition for maximum discharge through Steam Nozzle 68 Significance of Critical Pressure ratio in Steam Nozzle 70 Flow through actual nozzles 72 Supersaturated expansion of Steam 73 Working Principal of Impulse and Reaction Turbines 74 Vector Diagrams of Velocities 75 Performance of Turbines 77 Optimum Operating conditions of Turbines 78 Compounding of Steam Turbines 79 Losses in Steam Turbines 82 Governing of Steam Turbines 83 Unit IV : Contents 84 Steam Engines 85 Working of Steam Engines 86 Indicator Diagrams of Steam Engines 87 Performance of Steam Engines 88 Steam Condensers 89 Types of Condensers 90 Surface Condensers 91 Comparison of Jet and Surface Condensers 92 Efficiency of Steam Condensers 93 Cooling Towers 94

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Pankaj Khatak
Pankaj Khatak
BETTER to view in LANDSCAPE VIEW in MOBILE 25-02-2018 STEAM AND POWER GENERATION Course Code : ME-206-L Course Credits : 3 Contact Hours : 3 hours/ Week Mode : Lectures by : Pankaj Khatak , M : 94162-44814 Course Assessment Methods Internal : 30 Marks • Two minor tests each of 20 marks (Best one counted). • Class Performance measured through percentage of lectures attended (4 marks). • Assignment and quiz (6 marks). External : 70 marks For the end semester examination, Nine Questions are to be set by the examiner. • Question number one will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus. It will contain Seven Short Answers (2 marks each) type questions. • Rest of the Eight Questions (14 marks each) is to be given by setting two questions from each of the Four Units of the syllabus. • A candidate is required to attempt any other four questions selecting One from each of the remaining four units. All questions carry equal marks. Note : 1. Third minor will be taken only after the written request of students. 2. 75% attendance is compulsory to take the minor exams. 3. Make separate Notebook for this course to do the assignments etc. 4. References (symbols : 1,2,3….)are in the notes section or can be clicked as hyperlinks. 1
25-02-2018 COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the combustion of fuels and formation of flue gases in the exhaust. 2. To understand the energy conversion in steam power plant through various vapor power cycles. 3. To recognize the parts and operations of high and low pressure steam boilers. 4. To analyze flow of steam through nozzles, turbines, engines and condensers. COURSE OUTCOMES 1. Calculate air-fuel ratio for combustion of different fuels and estimate the amount of flue gases in exhaust. 2. Explain the steam power plant components with the help of basic and advanced cycles. 3.Explain the construction and working of different steam boilers and estimate their performance. 4.Calculate the performance of steam nozzle, steam turbine, steam engine, and steam condenser. BOOKS RECOMMENDED: • P. L. Ballaney, “Thermal Engineering”, Khanna Publishers, 1994 • Mahesh M. Rathore, “Thermal Engineering”, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010 • R. K. Rajput, “Thermal Engineering”, Laxmi Publication, 2017. • V. P. Vasandani, D. S. Kumar, “Treatise on Heat Engineering”, Metropolitan Book Company, 2012 2
25-02-2018 SYLLABUS 3 Unit I Fuels and Combustion: Characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, Laws of combustion and reactions, Gravimetric and volumetric analysis, Air-fuel ratio, Exhaust gas analysis, Orsat apparatus. Calorific values of fuel, Bomb calorimeter, Numericals. Steam: Formation of steam at constant pressure, Variation in steam properties during phase change, Steam tables and their uses, Enthalpy – entropy (Mollier) diagram, Carnot and Rankine vapour cycles, Rankine cycle with reheat and regeneration, Numericals. Unit II Steam Generators: Classification of steam boilers, Essentials of a good boiler, Construction and operational details of Locomotive, Lancashire, Benson, Lamont, Loeffler and Velox boilers, Boiler mountings and accessories. Boiler Draught (Draft) and Performance: Natural (Chimney) draught, Maximum discharge through a chimney, Artificial draught, Evaporative capacity and efficiency of boilers, Energy balance in a boiler, Numericals. Unit III Steam Nozzles: Steam flow through a nozzle, Critical pressure ratio (maximum discharge condition) and its physical significance, Flow through actual nozzles, Supersaturated expansion of steam, Numericals. Steam Turbines: Working principle of impulse and reaction steam turbines. Vector diagrams of velocities, Optimum operating conditions of turbines, Compounding of impulse turbines, Losses in steam turbines, Performance analysis of steam turbines, Governing of steam turbines, Numericals. Unit IV Steam Engines : Construction and working of steam engines, Indicator diagrams, Performance of steam engines, Governing of steam engines. Numericals. Steam Condensers: Elements of a condensing plant, Types of condensers, Comparison of jet and surface condensers. Condenser and vacuum efficiency, Cooling towers, Numericals.
4 25-02-2018 Unit I Fuels and Combustion: • Characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels • Laws of combustion and reactions • Gravimetric and volumetric analysis • Air-fuel ratio • Exhaust gas analysis • Orsat apparatus • Calorific values of fuel, Bomb calorimeter, Numericals. Steam: • Formation of steam at constant pressure • Variation in steam properties during phase change • Steam tables and their uses • Enthalpy – entropy (Mollier) diagram • Carnot and Rankine vapour cycles • Rankine cycle with reheat and regeneration, Numericals.

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