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Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

by Abhishek Apoorv
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Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems by Abhishek Apoorv

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Abhishek Apoorv
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Prime Faraday Technology Watch An Introduction to MEMS (Micro-electromechanical Systems) MEMS has been identified as one of the most promising technologies for the 21st Century and has the potential to revolutionize both industrial and consumer products by combining silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology. Its techniques and microsystem-based devices have the potential to dramatically affect of all of our lives and the way we live. This report presents a general introduction to the field of MEMS, with emphasis on its commercial applications and device fabrication methods. It also describes the range of MEMS sensors and actuators, the phenomena that can be sensed or acted upon with MEMS devices, and outlines the major challenges facing the industry. PRIME Faraday Partnership PRIME Faraday Partnership ISBN 1-84402-020-7 An Introduction to MEMS January 2002
This title is for sale in paperback at Amazon.co.uk http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1844020207 Technology Watch titles are written for managers, especially in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies. They offer a practical introduction to cutting-edge developments that affect – or likely soon will affect – the design, development, manufacture and marketing of PRIME products – products with interdependent mechanical and electronic (and possibly software) parts. All Technology Watch titles can be downloaded free of charge from the Prime Faraday Partnership’s Technology Watch website http://www.primetechnologywatch.org.uk/. Selected titles can be purchased in paperback from Amazon.co.uk. In addition to market and technology reviews, the Technology Watch website also provides news cuttings, case studies, an events diary and details of funding opportunities. The service is sponsored by the DTI and managed by the PRIME Faraday Partnership, which marries the academic strengths of Loughborough University and the University of Nottingham to the technology-transfer expertise of Pera.
An Introduction to MEMS Published in 2002 by PRIME Faraday Partnership Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics LE11 3TU http://www.primetechnologywatch.org.uk © 2002 Loughborough University ISBN 1-84402-020-7 Whilst the advice and information in this publication is believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the author nor the publisher assume any legal responsibility or liability for any error or omission that may have been made. Comments on this publication are welcomed. Please send them to <feedback@primetechnologywatch.org.uk> Prime Faraday Technology Watch – January 2002
An Introduction to MEMS Contents Page 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………….. 1 2. Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS)………………………………………... 1 2.1 What is MEMS?…………………………………………………………………... 1 2.2 Definitions and Classifications…………………………………………………… 3 2.3 History…………………………………………………………………………… 4 2.4 Applications………………………………………………………………………. 6 2.4.1 Established MEMS Applications………………………………………………….. 7 2.4.2 New MEMS Applications…………………………………………………………11 2.5 MEMS Market……………………………………………………………………14 2.6 Miniaturization Issues…………………………………………………………… 16 3. MEMS Fabrication Methods……………………………………………………….. 17 3.1 Photolithography………………………………………………………………… 17 3.2 Materials for Micromachining……………………………………………………18 3.2.1 Substrates………………………………………………………………………… 18 3.2.2 Additive Films and Materials……………………………………………………..19 3.3 Bulk Micromachining…………………………………………………………….20 3.3.1 Wet Etching……………………………………………………………………….20 3.3.2 Dry Etching………………………………………………………………………. 21 3.4 Surface Micromachining………………………………………………………… 21 3.4.1 Fusion Bonding……………………………………………………………………23 3.5 High-Aspect-Ratio-Micromachining……………………………………………. 23 3.5.1 LIGA……………………………………………………………………………... 23 3.5.2 Laser Micromachining…………………………………………………………… 24 3.6 Computer Aided Design………………………………………………………….24 3.7 Assembly and System Integration……………………………………………….. 25 3.8 Packaging………………………………………………………………………... 27 3.8.1 Multi-Chip Modules………………………………………………………………28 3.8.2 Passivation and Encapsulation…………………………………………………… 29 3.9 Foundry Services…………………………………………………………………29 4. MEMS Transducers………………………………………………………………… 30 4.1 Mechanical Transducers………………………………………………………….31 4.1.1 Mechanical Sensors……………………………………………………………….31 4.1.2 Mechanical Actuators……………………………………………….…………… 32 4.2 Radiation Transducers…………………………………………………………… 34 4.2.1 Radiation Sensors………………………………………………………………... 34 4.2.2 Radiation (Optical) Actuators……………………………………………………. 34 4.3 Thermal Transducers……………………………………………………………..35 4.3.1 Thermal Sensors…………………………………………………………………..35 4.3.2 Thermal Actuators……………………………………………………………..….35 4.4 Magnetic Transducers…………………………………………………………… 36 4.4.1 Magnetic Sensors………………………………………………………………… 36 4.4.2 Magnetic Actuators…………………………………………………………….… 37 4.5 Chemical and Biological Transducers…………………………………………… 37 4.5.1 Chemical and Biological Sensors………………………………………………... 37 4.5.2 Chemical Actuators……………………………………………………………….39 4.6 Microfluidic Devices……………………………………………………………. 39 Prime Faraday Technology Watch – January 2002 iii

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