2.1 SOME DEFINITIONS OF AI
Building systems that think like humans
―The exciting new effort to make computers think … machines with minds, in the
full and literal sense‖ -- Haugeland, 1985
―The automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, … such as
decision-making, problem solving, learning, …‖ -- Bellman, 1978
Building systems that act like humans
―The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence
when performed by people‖ -- Kurzweil, 1990
―The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people
are better‖ -- Rich and Knight, 1991
Building systems that think rationally
―The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models‖ -Charniak and McDermott, 1985
―The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act‖
Building systems that act rationally
―A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of
computational processes‖ -- Schalkoff, 1990
―The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent
behavior‖ -- Luger and Stubblefield, 1993
2.1.1. Acting Humanly: The Turing Test Approach
Test proposed by Alan Turing in 1950
The computer is asked questions by a human interrogator.
The computer passes the test if a human interrogator, after posing some written questions, cannot
tell whether the written responses come from a person or not. Programming a computer to pass,
the computer need to possess the following capabilities:
Natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in English.
Knowledge representation to store what it knows or hears
Automated reasoning to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new
Machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns.
To pass the complete Turing Test, the computer will need
Computer vision to perceive the objects, and
Robotics to manipulate objects and move about.
CS6659 – ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE