Introduction:. Digital computer generation, computer types and classifications, functional units and their interconnections, buses, bus architecture, types of buses and bus arbitration. Register, bus and memory transfer. Central Processing Unit: Addition and subtraction of signed numbers, look ahead carry adders. Multiplication: Signed operand multiplication, Booths algorithm and
array multiplier. Division and logic operations. Floating point arithmetic operation Processor organization, general register organization, stack organization and addressing modes.
Control Unit: Instruction types, formats, instruction cycles and subcycles ( fetch and 8execute etc) , micro-operations, execution of a complete instruction. Hardwire and microprogrammed control: microprogramme sequencing, wide branch addressing, microinstruction with next address field, pre-fetching microinstructions, concept of horizontal and vertical microprogramming.
Input / Output: Peripheral devices, I/O interface, I/O ports, Interrupts: interrupt hardware, types of interrupts and exceptions. Modes of Data Transfer: Programmed I/O, interrupt initiated I/O and Direct Memory Access., I/O channels and processors.Serial Communication: Synchronous & asynchronous communication, standard communication interfaces.