The foundation problems of dams, bridges and buildings are directly related with geology
of the area where they are to be built.
The knowledge of ground water is necessary in connection with excavation works, water
supply, irrigation and many other purposes.
The knowledge of Erosion, Transportation and Deposition (ETD) by surface water helps
in soil conservation, river control.
Geological maps and sections help considerably in planning many engineering projects.
If the geological features like faults, joints, beds, folds are found, they have to be
suitably treated. Hence, the stability of the rock structures is important.
Pre-geological survey of the area concerned reduces the cost of planning work.
Minerals, Rocks and soils constitute earth materials.
evaluation and operations in civil engineering practice.
They play a vital role in the site
Whether it is tunneling, hydro-electric projects, ground water development, foundation
for structures, study of slope stability etc.. a basic understanding of the earth materials is
Thus, study of minerals, rocks and soils forms the first step in civil engg point of view.
Hence, a civil engineer should know the introduction of Geology and its branches and
importance of a few branches such as Physical Geology, Petrology; Structural Geology
and so on ……
IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL GEOLOGY, PETROLOGY & STRUCTURAL
IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL GEOLOGY: It deals with the geological processes
which bring about changes in the crust and upon the surface of the earth. It also deals with
the surface features of the earth
( land forms ) or its topography. The earth is
concentrically divided into a number of spheres viz.,
Atmosphere ; (2) Hydrosphere and (3) Lithosphere .
The outermost sphere is Atmosphere which consists of several gases and vapours and
envelopes the earth. Atmosphere is essentially a mixture of N2 and O2 with smaller
quantities of vapour, CO2 etc… Geologically atmosphere is important as the medium of
climate and weather. Hydrosphere includes the natural waters of the earth i.e., oceans,
seas, lakes, rivers, streams and underground water. Lithosphere is the outer part of the
earth’s crust consisting of rocks and minerals.