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Note for Engineering Geology - EG by Nagi Reddy

  • Engineering Geology - EG
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UNIT: 1 INTRODUCTION GEOLOGY (in Greek, Geo means Earth, Logos means Science) is a branch of science dealing with the study of the Earth. It is also known as earth science. The study of the earth as a whole, its origin, structure, composition and the nature of the processes which have given rise to its present position is called as geology. Geology comprises the following branches: 1. Crystallography 2. Mineralogy 3. Petrology 4. Geophysics 5. Geochemistry 6. Structural Geology 7. Stratigraphy(historical geology) 8. Physical Geology 9. Geomorphology 10. Paleontology 11. Hydrogeology 12. Engineering Geology 13. Photo Geology 14. Economic Geology 15. Mining Geology Crystallography: The study of the characters of crystals is known as crystallography. Crystals are bodies bounded by flat faces (surfaces), arranged on a definite plane due to internal arrangements of atoms. Mineralogy: The study of the characters of minerals (eg: quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, chlorite, garnet) is known as Mineralogy. A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous substance, inorganically formed with a definite chemical composition, with a certain physical properties and crystalline structures. Note: Coal, oil etc are considered as minerals THOUGH they arises by organic matter under exceptional conditions Petrology: The study of rocks in all their aspects including their mineralogy’s, textures, structures (systematic description of rocks in hand specimen and thin sections); origin and their relationships to other rocks. Geophysics: The section of the earth which include the structure, physical conditions and evolutionary history of the earth as a whole. Geochemistry: The study of chemical composition of minerals and rocks of the earth. Structural Geology is the study of rock structures such as folds that have resulted from movements and deformation of the earth’s crust. 1|Page

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Stratigraphy: The study of the stratified rocks especially their sequence in time, character of the rocks and correlation of beds at different localities. the Physical Geology: It deals with the geological processes which bring about changes in the crust and upon the surface of the earth. It also deals with the surface features of the earth( land forms ) or its topography Geomorphology: The description and interpretation of land forms. Paleontology is the study of ancient life, determination of environment, evolution of organisms etc. Hydrogeology- the study of the geological factors relating to earth’s water. Mining Geology deals with the method of mining of rocks and mineral deposits on earth’s surface and subsurface. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY: the principles and methods of geology is adopted for the purpose of civil engineering operations. Broadly speaking, engineering geology has two divisions: (1) The study of raw materials (2) The study of the geological characteristics of the area where engineering operations are to be carried out such as Groundwater characteristics; the load bearing capacity of rocks; the stability of slopes; excavation; rock mechanics etc for civil engineer. SCOPE OF GEOLOGY: In Civil Engineering • Geology provides necessary information about the construction materials at the site used in the construction of buildings, dams, tunnels, tanks, reservoirs, highways and bridges. • Geological information is most important in planning stage, design phase and construction phase of an engineering project. • Geology is useful to know the method of mining of rock and mineral deposits on earth’s surface and subsurface. • Geology is useful for supply, storage and filling up of reservoirs with water. IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FROM CIVIL ENGINEERING POINT OF VIEW • Before constructing roads, bridges, tunnels, tanks, reservoirs and buildings, selection of site is important from the point of stability of foundation. • Geology provides a systematic knowledge of construction materials and their properties. • The knowledge about the nature of the rocks in tunneling and construction of roads. 2|Page

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• The foundation problems of dams, bridges and buildings are directly related with geology of the area where they are to be built. • The knowledge of ground water is necessary in connection with excavation works, water supply, irrigation and many other purposes. • The knowledge of Erosion, Transportation and Deposition (ETD) by surface water helps in soil conservation, river control. • Geological maps and sections help considerably in planning many engineering projects. • If the geological features like faults, joints, beds, folds are found, they have to be suitably treated. Hence, the stability of the rock structures is important. • Pre-geological survey of the area concerned reduces the cost of planning work. Minerals, Rocks and soils constitute earth materials. evaluation and operations in civil engineering practice. They play a vital role in the site Whether it is tunneling, hydro-electric projects, ground water development, foundation for structures, study of slope stability etc.. a basic understanding of the earth materials is essential. Thus, study of minerals, rocks and soils forms the first step in civil engg point of view. Hence, a civil engineer should know the introduction of Geology and its branches and importance of a few branches such as Physical Geology, Petrology; Structural Geology and so on …… IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL GEOLOGY, PETROLOGY & STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL GEOLOGY: It deals with the geological processes which bring about changes in the crust and upon the surface of the earth. It also deals with the surface features of the earth ( land forms ) or its topography. The earth is concentrically divided into a number of spheres viz., (1) Atmosphere ; (2) Hydrosphere and (3) Lithosphere . The outermost sphere is Atmosphere which consists of several gases and vapours and envelopes the earth. Atmosphere is essentially a mixture of N2 and O2 with smaller quantities of vapour, CO2 etc… Geologically atmosphere is important as the medium of climate and weather. Hydrosphere includes the natural waters of the earth i.e., oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams and underground water. Lithosphere is the outer part of the earth’s crust consisting of rocks and minerals. 3|Page

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The geological processes include Denudation, Deposition, Earth movements, Igneous activity and metamorphism. Denudation: The sum of the processes which result in the general lowering of the land surfaces or when erosion takes place, fresh country rock surfaces will be exposed and this process is called DENUDATION. Denudation consists of weathering, transportation and erosion. Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down and decomposed by the action of external agencies such as wind, rain, temperature changes. Weathering is the initial stage in the process of denudation. Transportation is the main agency by which materials are moved by means of Gravity, running water ( rivers, streams ); Ice ( glaciers ); Wind etc.. Erosion: Mechanical disintegration or chemical decomposition of rocks and their subsequent displacement is called as erosion or erosion is the destructive process due to the effect of the transporting agents. The chief agents of erosion are running water, wind etc.. Deposition : The material is transported mechanically and deposit (eg: sand ). Earth movements include the uplift and depressions of land areas & sea floors. Igneous activity includes emission of lavas, gases, other volcanic products etc Metamorphism: The process by which changes are brought about in rocks within the earth’s crust by the agencies of Heat, Pressure and Chemical fluids. Thermal metamorphism : heat alone acts Dynamic metamorphism : involves stress to break up the rocks Regional/Dynamo thermal metamorphism: Both heat & pressure involves Retrograde metamorphism : produces lower grade metamorphic rocks Auto Metamorphism : chemical adjustment in newly solidified igneous rocks, brought about by a decrease in temperature . Geological works of Rivers A river is one of the major geological agent which carries out its work. mainly divided into three stages, namely 1. River Erosion 2. River Transportation 3. River Deposition The work is 4|Page

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